"As the most socially tolerant nonhuman ape, bonobos (Pan paniscus
) provide a powerful phylogenetic test of whether this trait is derived in humans," the study authors wrote.
Although chimps (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus
) became separate species 1.6 million to 2 million years ago, they are still closely related enough to interbreed occasionally.
Urinary testosterone-metabolite levels and dominance rank in male and female bonobos (Pan paniscus
(8) Remarkably, since 1965, FEH has been detected in animals, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus
), howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca), and Asian lions (Panthera leo persica) (9)
Call, "The performance of bonobos (Pan paniscus
), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in two versions of an object-choice task," J.
In 2012, the International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN) and the Congolese Wildlife Authority (ICCN) published a report titled Bonobo (Pan paniscus
): Conservation Strategy 2012-2022.
Scholars of anatomy and anthropology, most of them in Spain but a few in the US, present a photographic atlas of the muscles, skeleton, and nerves of both the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus
Recent studies that used molecular approaches showed that captive and wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), as well as captive bonobos (Pan paniscus
), harbor parasites broadly related to P.