(3) Bakunin was also battling, in the years covered by Zurbrugg's omnibus, with his trenchant commitments to the cause of pan-Slavism
. Those commitments had been in interface with his internationalist and universalist goal of the overthrow of the autocratic order for decades--for example from 1848 on, when he released his Appeal to the Slavs, a pamphlet that encouraged Slav revolutionaries to unite with Hungarians, Italians and Germans to overrun the three hallowed European autocracies: the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Kingdom of Prussia.
His father, one of Russia's greatest historians, also bequeathed to him a universal worldview that freed him from the judeophobia afflicting many of his contemporary Russian patriots, influenced as they were by Pan-Slavism
, an ideology of action and politics, popularized by Nikolai Danilevsky (1822-85).
In the chapter's introduction, he argues that the birth of Turkish nationalist thought can be traced to three factors: responses to separatist nationalist movements among non-Turkish nationalities in the Ottoman Empire, European (and later Ottoman) academic studies on the pre-Islamic history and language of the Turkish peoples, and lastly, the immigration from the Russian Empire of a group of educated Turkish-speaking intellectual and political elites, fluent in European languages and influenced by Russian Pan-Slavism
. Although a lively scholarly debate exists about the origins of Turkish nationalism and nationalism more broadly, Uzer's interest in the chapter lies less in locating origins than in cataloguing important early nationalist thought.
By 1914 Russia had largely recovered from the nadir of its 1905 defeat by Japan and, although threatened by domestic instability palliated by aggressive pan-Slavism
, was able to pursue a German policy that combined war preparation with efforts at datente.
Mahoney argues convincingly that much of the Western public has been too quick to see Solzhenitsyn as a polemicist and does an excellent service for thoughtful readers, and for Solzhenitsyn, by saving him from the critical associations with National Bolshevism, Eurasianism (by some accounts the current vision of President Putin), pan-Slavism
, and Great Russian imperialism so often ascribed to him by unfriendly interpreters.
I do, contrary to Perdue's assertions, demonstrate how such invented traditions as Pan-Germanism, Pan-Slavism
, Pan-Turkism, Pan-Islam, and a Confucian revival represent alternative paths to nation-state building and attempt to explain why they failed.
In spite of the fact that Slovakia has no immediate borders with Russia or Belarus and just a tiny border with Ukraine, situated very far from Bratislava (the capital), the case of Slovak attitudes towards its Eastern neighbours is interesting and important for several reasons: 1) predominantly positive historical image of Russians in Slovak national discourse (based on Pan-Slavism
ideology); 2) negative experience of Slovaks with Russians during the twentieth century (First and Second World War, Soviet domination over Czechoslovakia); and 3) a lack of systematic previous research studies in Slovakia focused on the perception of the other nations (Czechoslovak and Slovak attitudes are not the same).
The Volunteer Divisions included multiple Slav ethnicities-Czechs, Slovenes, and Croatians-thus fulfilling the dream of Pan-Slavism
Skrabak said his group cooperates with far-right groups in Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Serbia to jointly fight "against the dictate of Brussels," and to spread the idea of pan-Slavism
, a union of ethnic Slavs.
We should not ignore the pan-Slavism
and Orthodox solidarity in this geography.
Raico does not shortchange the reader on essential background: the emerging alliance system that pitted Allied Powers against Central Powers, Serbian ambitions, Balkan Wars, Pan-Slavism
, and the dangers of mobilization.
The German colonialism and imperialism relevant to Nazism and the Holocaust was not to be found in Africa, as commonly supposed, but in the Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism
of Central Europe.