A grammar of Makalero, a Papuan language
of East Timor.
2007), we conclude that the Austronesian languages borrowed the word from a pre-existing Papuan language
, namely, they inherited *muku as part of a Papuan substrate.
Linguistics: the islands were separated into two broad socio-linguistic blocs; the Eastern Islanders of Erub, Ugar, Mer, Dauar and Waier spoke a Papuan language
(Meriam Mir) while the Central and Western Islanders spoke an Australian Aboriginal language (Kala Lagaw Ya) (Shnukal 1998);
However, I note Geoffrey Hull disagrees strongly that Adabe is a Papuan language
, arguing that Atauroan languages are all 'unmistakably Austronesian' in structure and in their lexemes and grammatical form, see, Geoffrey Hull, 'The languages of Timor 1772-1997: A literature review', Studies in languages and cultures of East Timor, 1 (1998): 1-38.
For example, the Madak language of New Ireland is classified as Oceanic but as Ross (1994) has shown, Madak was originally a Papuan language
which shifted to an Austronesian phonological system.
For instance, in Kiwai, a so-called Papuan language
of southern Papua New Guinea, there are fifty or so terms for coconut palm according to whether it is a young palm having not yet produced nuts, a palm just sprouting, a mature palm with nuts for drinking, for producing copra, had its nuts harvested, is a low-growing or tall-growing variety, is an old palm producing no more nuts, is mainly grown to provide palm-leaves, etc.
As a result of his researches, he established that the easterners spoke a Papuan language
(today called Meriam Mir) and the westerners, an Australian language (now called Kala Lagaw Ya on Mabuiag and Badu and Kalaw Kawaw Ya on Saibai, Boigu and Dauan).
Foley's paper provides a critical overview of the second-largest Papuan language
family that has been hypothesized, Sepik-Ramu.
All 12 native languages spoken on Aru belong to the Central-Malayo-Polynesian group of the Austronesian languages; no Papuan language
is spoken on Aru.
A Grammar of Nungon: A Papuan Language
of Northeast New Guinea
The descendants of the subsequent influx of Melanesian seafaring peoples with a 'horticultural economy' is found with Papuan language
speakers of the Eastern Group, and the mixed Aboriginal-Papuan language
of the Western Group (who subsequently expanded northwards and eastwards to settle the Top Western and Central Groups respectively).
Papuan clans also settled in Torres Strait, however it is only on the five Eastern islands that a Papuan language
came to dominate, likely evidencing subsequent and ongoing close cultural and kinship links with central-southern Papua (5).