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n.1.(Zool.) Same as Paragnathus.
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splendida two patterns are recognized for area VI despite the fact there is usually a very low variation in paragnath number in this area (Gonzalez-Escalante & Salazar-Vallejo, 2003; Conde-Vela & Salazar-Vallejo, 2015).
Grube (1840: 73-74) studied Rathke's material and added some features to the earlier description, especially regarding the chaetal blades and paragnath arrangement on the pharynx, but made no further comment about its identity.
As in all other decapods, the mouth apparatus of Palaemon adspersus consists of maxillipeds 1-3 (Mxpl-3), maxillae 1-2 (Mx 1-2), mandible, paragnath (not visible in Fig.
Webster (1879) and Taylor (1984) reported 2 rows of numerous small paragnaths in area III for this species but variability in paragnath number has been shown to exhibit great inter-population variability and the use of paragnath number as a determinate of species in the Nereididae has been questioned (Maltagliati, Massaro, Cossu, & Castelli, 2006).
Paragnath distributions; I = 9-16, II = 15-24, III = 18-25, IV = 23-30, V = 1, VI = 1 transverse bar, VII & VIII = 2 rows of paragnaths, eighteen to twenty two in the proximal row and 12 to 17 in the distal row.
in described on the basis of eight syntype specimens (six atokous and two heteronereis) collected in Bahia Chetumal, Mexican Caribbean coast, and the variability in the paragnath numbers in the pharynx is established using 180 specimens; paragnath numbers are I:10(SD=1.
Another 180 complete specimens were studied in order to evaluate the variability in paragnath numbers in the pharynx, they were collected in the same locality in different dates (26 in June, 21 in July, 20 in August, 26 in September, and 87 in October).
tenuimana have a mouth apparatus composed of six pairs of mouthparts plus labrum and paragnaths (upper and lower lips).
The basic limb-pattern for Eucrustacea (the condition in the stem species to all recent Crustacea) was a labrum, paired paragnaths, and two pairs of mouthparts (mandibles and maxillae 1), followed by a large number of more-or-less similar limbs (Walossek, 1998).
The two ventrally directed lobes of the paragnaths [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 2, 3, 4E OMITTED] form the posterior lateral borders of the preoral chamber.
It has been observed that in at least some crustaceans the paragnaths are mobile and are mechanically coupled with the mandibles (Wales, 1982).