Between the years 727 and 926, Japan maintained diplomatic relations with the northeast Asian state of Parhae. The relationship was a productive one, and it was reasonably bilateral: Japan sent thirteen official embassies to Parhae and Parhae sent thirty-four to Japan.
This essay has two primary goals, the first and most basic of which is to suggest in broad terms the importance of relations with Parhae to Japanese culture and court politics during the Nara (710-94) and early Heian (794-1185) periods.
A BRIEF OUTLINE OF JAPAN'S RELATIONS WITH PARHAE DURING THE NARA PERIOD (710-94)
The state of Bohai (in Russian, Bohai; in Korean: Parhae; in Chinese: Bohai) existed in what is now the Russian Maritime Region (Primorskii krai), North Korea, and North-Eastern China from the late seventh to the early tenth centuries CE.
(27.) Ki-Ho Song, "Parhae nambukhan-jung-il-roui jaguk jungsim haesok," Yoksa pip'yong.
(63.) Eun-Guk Kim, "Parhae myolmanui vonin," Parhae konguk 1300 chunyon (698-926), Seoul: Hakyonmunhvansa, 1999, 119-40.
(the last Chinese commandery conquered by Koguryo); 313-668 (Three Kingdoms Period: till the fall of Paekje  and Koguryo  to the combined forces of Silla and Tang China, the Chinese expelled in 676); 668-936 (Unified Silla; the kingdom of Parhae
in the northern part, former Koguryo, from 698 to 926); 936-1392 (Silla succeeded by Koryo); 1392-1910 (Choson, until annexed by Japan in 1910).
Tiempo despues, las relaciones tributarias amistosas entre Sila y Tang fueron restablecidas, pero ello acontecio luego del surgimiento en el territorio de Manchuria de un poderoso reino conocido como Parhae
(Parje 697-925), situacion que obligo a acometer una accion conjunta con el fin de contener el posible embate de este nuevo Estado.
The author also touches on such controversial issues as the Korean foundation myths, the origins of the Kaya states, the position of Parhae
in Korean history, and explains how these issues are related to contemporary cultural and political identities.
Whether the Chin (Jin, or "Golden," 1115-1234) dynasty was such a pivotal era remains to be demonstrated, but it certainly has been all too commonly dismissed as ephemeral, and alien; and it does raise some highly provocative questions about the nature of China's "national identity." Chin was a multi-ethnic state, embracing not just the ruling Jurchen minority and the Han Chinese majority, but significant Khitan and Parhae
populations as well.
(806-866), who in 833-35 undertook a state mission to Parhae (Bohai), in
Zhang then sails to Parhae and back to China without