Obestatin is a peptide hormone, which is released by the parietal cells
in gastrointestinal tract.
Histamine represents the most important stimulus of the gastric parietal cells
. Because this stimulatory action is mediated by the [H.sub.2] subtype receptors, selective [H.sub.2] receptor antagonists (such as ranitidine) are inhibitors of acid secretion.
Stimulation of parietal cells
in the stomach wall (mostly through histamine attaching to its H2 receptor) activates a proton pump that exchanges potassium from outside the cell for hydrogen ions.
[H.sub.2] blockers compete with [H.sub.2] for the histamine receptors of the parietal cells
, which causes a decrease in hydrochloric acid and a subsequent increase in intragastric pH.
Changes observed in the glomerular capsules were associated with necrosis in simple squamous cell (parietal layer) and after which rupture in parietal cells
of glomerular capsule and leakage into glomerular urinary space was demonstrated.
It is marked by the destruction and loss of the gastric parietal cells
replaced by connective tissue or glandular structures.
In brief, inflammation, mucous metaplasia, oxyntic gland atrophy, and pseudopyloric metaplasia in the gastric corpus were scored as increasing and extension of leukocyte, foci replacing of parietal cells
, loss of chief/parietal cells, and site of foci replacing.
The gastric body is the location of parietal cells
, which produce acid.
: In fact, the cells of the fundic glands with high succinic dehydrogenase activity are parietal cells
at the 8th week of development (37).
However, the parietal cells
start to dilate, and the pyramidal shape of the cells is gradually deformed with nucleus starting to settle at the side, and with adipose tissues starting to replace these cells.
These include chief cells, which produce a key digestive enzyme called pepsin, and parietal cells
. Parietal cells
secrete hydrochloric acid for digestion and intrinsic factor to help the intestines absorb vitamin B-12, which is critical for making blood cells and maintaining a healthy nervous system.
LPZ is metabolized to sulfonamide derivatives in parietal cells
. The resultant metabolites inactivate the H+/K+ ATPase enzyme system, and block the formation of acid by preventing the migration of the H+ ions into the lumen (10,11).