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A city of north-central Italy southeast of Milan. Founded by Romans in 183 bc, it became a free city in the 1100s and was the center of the duchy of Parma and Piacenza after 1545. It became part of the kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and of Italy in 1861.


1. (Placename) a city in N Italy, in Emilia-Romagna: capital of the duchy of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 until it became part of Italy in 1860; important food industry (esp Parmesan cheese). Pop: 163 457 (2001)
2. (Placename) a city in NE Ohio, south of Cleveland. Pop: 83 861 (2003 est)


(ˈpɑr mə)

1. a city in N Italy, SE of Milan. 179,019.
2. a city in NE Ohio. 89,440.
References in classic literature ?
Or, if passengers desire to visit Parma (famous for Correggio's frescoes) and Bologna, they can by rail go on to Florence, and rejoin the steamer at Leghorn, thus spending about three weeks amid the cities most famous for art in Italy.
A day or two will be spent at each place, and leaving Parma in the evening, Valencia in Spain will be reached the next morning.
That evening, at eight-thirty, exquisitely dressed and wearing a large button-hole of Parma violets, Dorian Gray was ushered into Lady Narborough's drawing-room by bowing servants.
Lovell Mingott had the high colour and glassy stare induced in ladies of her age and habit by the effort of getting into a new dress; but once the disappointment occasioned by her mother-in-law's non-appearance had subsided, it was agreed that her black Chantilly over lilac satin, with a bonnet of Parma violets, formed the happiest contrast to Mrs.
You know the same thing was done for Saint Stephen of Florence, Saint George, Constantinian of Parma, and even for the Order of Malta.
I'll have them fly to India for gold, Ransack the ocean for orient pearl, And search all corners of the new-found world For pleasant fruits and princely delicates; I'll have them read me strange philosophy, And tell the secrets of all foreign kings; I'll have them wall all Germany with brass, And make swift Rhine circle fair Wertenberg; I'll have them fill the public schools with silk, Wherewith the students shall be bravely clad; I'll levy soldiers with the coin they bring, And chase the Prince of Parma from our land, And reign sole king of all the provinces; Yea, stranger engines for the brunt of war, Than was the fiery keel at Antwerp-bridge, I'll make my servile spirits to invent.
The defender has signed a four-year contract with Parma Calcio and will stay at the club until June 30, 2023.
At first glance, Parma looks like a city right out of a painting with old structures dotted amidst brightly coloured modern buildings.
Seven of Bologna's nine wins have come on home soil but they may struggle to justify favouritism against Parma, who have shared the points in their last five matches.
Birmingham City Council's Licensing and Public Protection Committee subsequently rejected the application by Parma (Midlands) Ltd to re-open a lap-dancing club called Paradise City in the same building.
"We're really excited to launch Brothers Parma Violet Cider exclusively across our pubs.
That 2-2 draw with Udinese was almost a microcosm of the club's modern history, with Parma thrilling their loyal fans by racing ahead only to leave them in despair by threatening to throw it all away.