Both editors' ranges of dates allow them to include all of the settings of Victor Hugo's and Charles Baudelaire's poems, as well as those of the early Parnassian poets. Although Nectoux and Daitz discuss stylistic changes corresponding to Faure's involvement with Pauline Viardot and her circle (including his aborted engagement to her daughter Marianne), the Hamelle edition slices away some important songs from what has often been called Faure's "Italian" period.
Their volume 1 opens with eight settings of Hugo's poems, beginning in 1861, and ends in 1882 with eight settings by Parnassian poets. In between there are three settings of Baudelaire, four from Gautier, seven from Faure's "Italian" period, and the cycle Poeme d'un jour.
Camille Saint-Saens, in an essay published in 1904 endorsing the proper usage of the muted e, associates the carrying out of feminine endings as a sign of sophistication: "To pronounce alike bout and boue, bal and balle, will never be for me the feat of a well-read man, even less of a poet." (6) He continues to reinforce the idea that the muted e holds a critical esthetic value in arts, and that the concept of eliminating it was "very much opposed to those of art, which are to elevate always in potency the usual means for the conquest of beauty." (7) Saint-Saens's credo recalls the tenets of the Parnassian poets
, a literary movement that thrived thirty to forty years earlier.
The emphasis he places on the unconscious constitutes an effort to establish a clear dividing line between his method of composition and that of the Parnassian poets
. Andrade starts a sort of "implied dialogue" with the most prominent Brazilian Parnassians, especially Olavo Bilac.
Inevitably, a major focal point of any biography of Rimbaud is his scandalous relationship with Paul Verlaine, the married and respected member of the Parnassian poets
. After the sixteen-year-old Rimbaud arrived in Paris at Verlaine's invitation, the two entered into an artistic and sexual relationship based on the younger poet's radical theory of the reinvention of language through the systematic "disordering of all the senses." A decade older than Rimbaud, Verlaine was immediately smitten with the handsome and precocious--if boorish and lice-ridden--escapee from provincial Charleville, a situation that the younger poet milked with impunity.
The literal and figurative meaning of "fondre" could not be more appropriate here to the poet's underlying (and, given the date: 1860) on-going utilization of sculptural metaphors that associate for him, as well as for other Parnassian poets
, words with ideas.
Casal's first volume of poetry, Hojas al viento (1890; "Leaves in the Wind"), shows the influence of the French Parnassian poets
, especially Charles Baudelaire.
Bertagnolli offers an insightful discussion of Holmes's little-known score that pairs her treatment of the myth with the literary tendencies of the Parnassian poets
and personal reactions to the Franco-Prussian war.
Lima's earliest verses show the marked influence of the French Parnassian poets
, but the volume O mundo do menino impossivel (1925; "The World of the Impossible Child") signals his endorsement of the Brazilian Modernismo movement.
French writer whose vision of ancient Greek religion and philosophy influenced the Parnassian poets