It also uses its large parotoid
glands, which are behind each eye.
The larger the toad the larger the parotoid
glands and the greater the volume of venom secreted.
glands, are large post-orbital serous glands that produce and store a viscous and creamy poisonous secretion composed of proteins, serine proteases, peptides, biogenic amines, cardiotonic steroids and alkaloids (Clarke, 1997; Anjolette et al., 2015).
 who reported the discovery of 25 peptides from the secretions of the parotoid
glands, including Caerulein 1, eighteen Caerins, and six Caeridins (Caeridins 1-6), the latter also being evidenced later in four other Australian frog species, including, L.
Identification and characterization of lipids by TLC in parotoid
gland secretion and its extract of Bufo melanostictus (Schneider).
One such is the parotoid
gland, which is located in the postorbital region, on both sides, and is specialized in toxin production and storage.
Vasculature of the Parotoid
Glands of Four Species of Toads (Bufonidae: Bufo).
This arboreal toad belongs, according to morphological characters, to the Rhinella veraguensis group, having orbito-tympanic and postorbital crests weak and parotoid
glands moderately large.
Of the toads that had parotoid
glands expressed, microscopic examination revealed the majority of the vesicles in the glands had emptied significantly with little to no contents remaining.
Actually, that liquid h a poison, and it does come from the toad's warty skin and from the two largest lumps--called parotoid
glands--located just behind the amphibian's eyes.
Unlike other toads for the region, this species lacks parotoid
This is the case of toads, characterized by the presence of a pair of parotoid
macroglands, strategically located behind the eyes to give protection by poison release in the form of jets in case of frontal attacks .