Over time, a secret paramilitary army made up of Hmong and people from various other ethnic groups was established in northern Laos, and over the next number of years they fought against the communist Pathet Lao
and, particularly, their North Vietnamese allies (Hillmer 2010; Warner 1996; Conboy 1995).
Later that year, the Pathet Lao
and North Vietnamese Army attacked Long Chieng for the second time, and I fled to Phakay village with my sister's family.
, a communist movement in Laos, occupied large mountainous areas and continued to be a considerable political force.
Drawing on comparisons with performances in northeastern Thailand, in this section, I will summarise the commonalities, highlight apparent differences, and describe the impact of the rise of the Thammayut and Pathet Lao
on jataka recitations.
The specific area of operation (AO) stretched from the Laotian capital of Vientiane on the border of Thailand north to the historic and, strategic Plaine de Jarres (PDJ) or Plain of Jars then, northeast to the Pathet Lao
capital of Sam Neua located in Sam Neua province on the DRV border.
And in 1961 it was his responsibility to inaugurate Operation Momentum to prevent a victory in Laos by the communist Pathet Lao
and their North Vietnamese allies.
It was on December 2, 1975, when the Pathet Lao
(literally "the Lao people," the name of the Communist Party) announced the abolition of the monarchy and proclaimed the democratic Republic of Laos.
Campbell, USN, son of missionaries raised in Korea during that war, is shot down and becomes a POW of the brutal Pathet Lao
, he is obligated to attempt escape.
Wikkin similarly noted that the Americans were able to recruit large number of Hmong to "strike aggressively against the Vietminh and Pathet Lao
around the Plain of Jars and Ho Chi Minh trail" by displaying strong support for "Hmong aspirations for autonomy" (Wikkin 1982: 188).
In 1954, an American presence was established in Laos's capital, Vientiane, not only to counter the spread of Communist Pathet Lao
activity in the northern provinces but also to influence Laotian government behavior.
The Laotian Air Force evacuated Kovach and his friends to the Plain of Jars, a key area in the fighting between the Communist Pathet Lao
and Laotian royalists.