Previous to the peace of Westphalia
, Germany was desolated by a war of thirty years, in which the emperor, with one half of the empire, was on one side, and Sweden, with the other half, on the opposite side.
Viewed from a distance, the war was a succession of conflicts that visited immeasurable suffering upon Europe's population, ending, with the Peace of Westphalia
, only when all of the parties involved had become utterly exhausted.
The alliance between the US and Japan, which was signed in 1952, has lasted longer than any other alliance between two powers since the 1648 Peace of Westphalia
Since the Peace of Westphalia
in 1648, sovereign states have formed the basis of international relations, but recently civil wars and revolution have spilled across state borders, upsetting international law and order.
Looking at religious conflict between Martin Luther's protestation and the Peace of Westphalia
, Constantinidou explores four specific responses to religious mayhem by authors from different areas of Europe who were incited either by personal experience or by observation of religious discord.
Will we rewrite Leviathan or, what amounts to the same thing, the Peace of Westphalia
, without this time having to pass through the tragic radicalization of Europe and the brewing or raging of world wars?
The main legal justification for this late origin of modern international law is attributed to the establishment of the notion of sovereign European states, as a result of a multilateral agreement, known as the Peace of Westphalia
(Cassese, 2005: 22-34, Shaw, 2003: 22).
The signing of the Peace of Westphalia
in 1648 effectively ended the Roman Catholic Church's claim to authority across the continent.
Munster, Oct 8 (Petra) -- His Majesty King Abdullah II Saturday received the Peace of Westphalia
Prize in recognition of his endeavours for peace and international security and stability.
King Abdullah II, who started on Friday an official visit to Germany, receives on Saturday the Peace of Westphalia
Prize in recognition of his endeavors for peace and international security and stability.
The state is losing both the monopoly on war it established with the Peace of Westphalia
in 1648 and its claim to its population's primary loyalty.
13) Historical examples include the Peace of Westphalia
(1648), French Revolution (1789), Congress of Vienna (1815), unification of Germany (1870), and the end of World War II (1945).