Hence archaeologically these are not to be sought in the Iron I period--where in the conventional chronology they are invariably tied to the distribution of Palestinian Mycenaean IIIC:1b ("Philistine Monochrome") and Palestinian Sub-Mycenaean wares ("Philistine Bichrome")--but rather within the Late Bronze Age strata of those sites within the sway of the rulers of the Pentapolis
Naturally, the Pope reigning Alexandria and all of Egypt, also reigns over Nubia, Libya, Sudan, Pentapolis
and all of Africa.
The area's east, with no big populations, was called Marmarica; the more important western portion was Pentapolis
, comprising five cities: Cyrene with its port of Apollonia (Marsa Susa), Arsinoe Taucheira (Tocra), Euesperides near Benghazi, Balagrae (Bayda) and Barce.
Excavations at various Philistine sites in Israel, especially the well-known "Philistine Pentapolis
," have revealed a culture that is noticeably different from the earlier one that this branch of the Sea Peoples replaced.
Advised to lie low for a while, Pericles is shipwrecked off Pentapolis
, where he wins a jousting tournament and the hand of the lovely Thaisa.
A report by the American Pentapolis
Agency of statistics in September showed at least 130,000 non-Syrian militants were fighting in Syria.
Fadel Ali Mohamed has published seven books in English about the Libyan archaeological sites of Cyrene, Ptolemais, Apollonia, Pentapolis
, and three books, in Arabic, about Islamic coins and inscriptions in Cyrenaica and about the history of Al Faidia.