We started serious studies of the model universes (Sapar, 1964) already at the time when the cosmic microwave background (CMB) had not yet been discovered by Penzias
and Wilson (1965a, 1965b) and thus the thermodynamic status of the universe was totally unknown.
Von Wald T, Monisova Y, Hacker MR, Yoo SW, Penzias
AS, Reindollar RR, et al.
Hwang K, Smith JF, Coward RM, Penzias
A, Bendikson K, Butts S, Coutifaris C, Falcone T, Fossum G, Gitlin S, Gracia C, Hansen K, Jindal S, La Barbera A, Mersereau J, Odem R, Paulson R, Pfeifer S, Pisarska M, Rebar R, Reindollar R, Rosen M, Sandlow J, Stouall D, Vernon M
Then in the winter of 1964-65, Bell Telephone researchers Arno Penzias
and Robert Wilson used a new antenna, a flaring Anish Kapoor-like horn, to scoop up these extraterrestrial radio waves in the heavens above New Jersey for a project to improve telecommunications with space satellites by eliminating unwanted interference.
(Kean, 2012: 20) NPSA Penzias
and Wilson phoned Dicke at Princeton and described their problem to him.
So obviously, beyond 2019, Britain will have a preferred relationship with these countries," Wolfgang Penzias
, Trade Counsellor, European Union, told Gulf News in an exclusive interview at Gitex Technology Week.
Similarly, Arno Penzias
and Robert Woodrow Wilsons practical work on improving microwave communications led to their Nobel Prize for finding the cosmic background radiation from the big bang.
"As scientific advances continue to improve the chance of having a baby through in vitro fertilization, we are mindful of our goal of helping our patients have a healthy singleton child," Alan Penzias
, MD, chair of the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, said in an interview.
Note that <<cosmic relic radiation>> with a wavelength of about 7 cm and a temperature of about 3 K was discovered in 1965 by American experimental physicists Arn Penzias
and Robert Wilson (Nobel Prize in physics for 1978 ).
Radio astronomers Arno Penzias
and Robert Wilson weren't looking for the cosmic microwave background when they stumbled upon it in 1964.
The idea subsequently received major boosts by Edwin Hubble's observations that galaxies are speeding away from us in all directions, and from the discovery of cosmic microwave radiation by Arno Penzias
and Robert Wilson." "The big bang theory leaves several major questions unanswered.
A small, known list of proper nouns of particular interest to Bell Labs or telecommunications was added to be sure they were identified as words (e.g., proper nouns such as "Shannon" and "Penzias