For example, the first black peppered moth
was recorded in Manchester in 1848 and by 1895 98 per cent of the city's peppered moths
Still, I was a scientist - heck, I'd already bred my own drosophila by this point - so I stood firm in the pursuit of important data collection and, using the handy identification guide I'd been given for the purpose, was able to establish that the peppered moths
in my temporary collection were all indeed peppered - there (presumably) being only minuscule levels of soot in late 1980s north Surrey.
are used to teach natural selection their changes in
Prior to the early 19th century, peppered moths
in England were light-colored.
and some copycat butterflies owe their color changes to a single gene, two new studies suggest.
It is no small coincidence that the very peppered moths
that were used to exemplify Darwin's theory of natural selection within evolutionary science during the 1950s was of the same species as Hopper's own interlocutor.
The classic example of a Darwinian event is the pollution arising from the industrial revolution that resulted in the dark form of peppered moths
(Biston betularia) predominating over the light form.
Then there's the story of peppered moths
. Most current biology textbooks carry photos of these moths on tree trunks, claiming that experiments performed in the 1950s showed that natural selection (stemming from camouflage differences and predatory birds) made dark- colored moths more common during the Industrial Revolution.
But between 1959 and today, the number of dark peppered moths
in England plunged from 90 to 5 percent of the population.
, Darwin's finches, and the four-winged fruit fly are icons rooted in modern experimental biology.
As soot from coal-fired factories blackened trees and buildings in 19th century England, naturalists noted that peppered moths
in polluted regions blended in by sporting a sleek, all-black look known as the carbonaria form instead of the usual lightly speckled wings.
Perhaps the most classic example of evolution-environment interdependence is that of the colour of the peppered moth
. The study was originally carried out in Britain and then later expanded to Detroit and industrial areas of the USA.