The next sections discuss four themes underlying the popularity of Postpill that were consistent across interviews, regardless of age, relationship status or educational level: infrequent and unplanned sex; fear of the side effects of other contraceptive methods; ECs as complementary to periodic abstinence
; and the ambiguity of reproductive intentions.
Still others used condoms until their periods returned, and then switched to either a hormonal method obtained from a health center, the Standard Days method or periodic abstinence
Traditional methods used by Ghanaian women are Periodic abstinence
(rhythm), which is the most commonly used method (by 17% of women) and withdrawal (14%) (20).
NATURAL METHODS THESE include the oldest forms of contraception but with the highest failure rates: Periodic abstinence
This means abstinence from intercourse during the time of ovulation and is based on calculations using the calendar, plus the rise and fall of the woman's body temperature and a predictor kit.
The survey stratifies birth control methods into highly effective (long-acting reversible contraception); moderately effective (only condoms); and less effective (withdrawal, periodic abstinence
, rhythm method, emergency contraception, diaphragm, female condom, foam, jelly, cervical cap, sponge, suppository, or insert).
(43) I will argue that our transformation in Christ, culminating in the heroic virtue that answers the universal call to holiness, requires that one perform--not avoid--a good action that is both appropriate (Aquinas's bonum debitum) and helps us gain virtuous mastery over our various powers; this requirement, obviously, will include those acts of periodic abstinence
that help build virtuous mastery over fertility and the pleasure intrinsic to conjugal acts.
The biggest surprise of natural birth control is what is often seen as one of the main negatives: periodic abstinence
to avoid pregnancy.
"We are concerned that if there isn't a policy correction, that will be the result" Deirdre McQuade of the Catholic bishops concluded: "Married women can practice periodic abstinence
. Other women can abstain altogether.
Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health developed this periodic abstinence
method based on studies of thousands of women's menstrual cycles and the viability of sperm.
The bishops advocate natural family planning, which "makes use of periodic abstinence
from sexual intercourse" to limit the number of children, as an alternative to other contraceptive methods.
Method First year failure rate * Perfect use Typical use Oral contraceptives 0.3 8.7 Tubal sterilization 0.5 0.7 Male condom 2.0 17.4 Vasectomy 0.1 0.2 3-month injectable 0.3 6.7 Withdrawal 4.0 18.4 Copper IUD 0.6 1.0 Hormonal IUD 0.1 0.1 Periodic abstinence
[dagger] 25.3 Implant 0.05 1.0 Patch 0.3 8.0 No method 85.0 85.0 * Percentage of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy during first year of use.
The document includes sections on various contraceptive methods, including abstinence, male and female condoms, vaginal spermicides, oral contraceptives, and emergency contraception, as well as a section on fertility awareness and other periodic abstinence