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n. pl. per·i·os·te·a (-tē-ə)
The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.

[New Latin, from Late Latin periosteon, from Greek, from periosteos, around the bone : peri-, peri- + osteon, bone; see ost- in Indo-European roots.]

per′i·os′te·al (-tē-əl), per′i·os′te·ous (-tē-əs) adj.
References in periodicals archive ?
There was mature periosteal reaction and a high intensity split cortex along the ulnar margin.
The lateral view of the right tibia showed proliferative and lytic periosteal reaction, predominantly proliferative in the distal third of the tibia and right talus, exceeding the articular line.
As long as there is no additional pyogenic infection, periosteal reaction is rarely seen (9).
There was no cortical erosion, periosteal reaction, or pathological fracture [Figure 1].
It is characterized by its histologic appearance of being predominantly chondroblastic with areas of osteoid and its radiographic appearance of a periosteally based lesion with periosteal reaction projecting perpendicularly into the associated soft tissue and has been found to have a lower propensity for metastasis compared to conventional, high-grade medullary osteosarcoma [1-7].
Histological osteomyelitic changes (periosteal reaction, cortical bone, and medullary canal) were compared between the groups with a Wilcoxon rank sum test.
Radiographs obtained demonstrated a lytic, expansile, geographic lesion with no cortical disruption or periosteal reaction (Figure 1).
There was no evidence of periosteal reaction, osteolysis, or cloacal openings seen anywhere along the left proximal femur.
Orthopantomogram showed sclerotic change at the right body of the mandible with periosteal reaction (Figure 1).
The bone may react to the lesion with a periosteal reaction or sclerosis.
Lateral, ventrodorsal, and intraoral radiographs of masses of the skull and mandible are necessary to determine precise location within the bone, extent of bony involvement, margination of the lesion, and the presence or absence of a periosteal reaction or bone lysis (McCAULEY et al., 2000).