It goes back to Proto-Finnic *moni 'many' < Proto-Uralic *moni, the reflex of which is preserved also in Permic
. The Germanic origin of this word cannot be accepted (LAGLOS II 265-266).
(5) In Permic
languages case marking of nominal dependents in noun phrases is defined by syntactic position of these phrases.
What is relevant is the fact that the ancestors of Finns developed first-hand contacts with the territories of modern northern Germany, and new but probably indirect trade bonds with territories of modern Ukraine and Permic
8 stems with cognates in Permic
languages may be loans, of these moni 'some', soovi-(ma) 'to wish', utt 'ewe' may be loas from PIE, ori 'slave; serf from PIE or Proto-Indo-Iranian, reba-(ne) 'fox', suga 'weavers read; rough brush' from ProtoIndo-Iranian, soe 'warm', sundi-(ma) 'to be born' from Proto-Iranian, some of these have dubious Finno-Ugrian cognates, see 3.2.
(2) In Permic
, there is no essive case, but the instrumental case, and partly also the inessive case, can express this function, e.g.
From the point of view of genera, it is absent in Ugric, Mordvinic, Mari, Permic
, Mongolian and Turkic.
The starting point of the process we are investigating are relational (relator) nouns, which are widespread in Permic
languages (often called inflected postpositions in grammars).
The Mari verb can be compared to the PU verb root *nicka- 'tear'(Sammallahti 1988 : 546), which is reconstructed on the basis of Saami, Permic
and Hungarian: cf.
This etymology of Fi haikea is, of course, speculative, but this has no bearing on the etymology of Fi kaiho and its cognates in Mordvin, Permic
, Mansi and Samoyed.
Saami, Finnic, Mordvin, Mari, Permic
, Khanty, Mansi, and Hungarian; a number of new Samoyed etymologies have been presented by Aikio (2002; 2006).
The pattern where a 2nd position clitic occurs on a fronted constituent is typical of Finnic and Saamic languages and also occurs in Permic
. Interrogative verb morphology is found in Samoyedic only.
1988, Hisrorical Phonology of the Uralic Languages with Special Reference to Samoyed, Ugric, and Permic
.--The Uralic Languages.