# perpendicular

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Related to Perpendicular Lines: Parallel Lines

## per·pen·dic·u·lar

(pûr′pən-dĭk′yə-lər)
1. Mathematics Intersecting at or forming right angles.
2. Being at right angles to the horizontal; vertical. See Synonyms at vertical.
3. often Perpendicular Of or relating to a style of English Gothic architecture of the 1300s and 1400s, characterized by the use of fan vaulting and broad windows with many mullions.
In a perpendicular position.
n.
1. Mathematics A line or plane perpendicular to a given line or plane.
2. A perpendicular position.
3. A device, such as a plumb line, that is used in marking the vertical from a given point.
4. A vertical or nearly vertical line or plane.

[Middle English perpendiculer, from Old French, from Latin perpendiculāris, from perpendiculum, plumb line, from perpendere, to weigh carefully : per-, per- + pendere, to weigh; see (s)pen- in Indo-European roots.]

per′pen·dic′u·lar′i·ty (-lăr′ĭ-tē) n.

## perpendicular

(ˌpɜːpənˈdɪkjʊlə)
1. (Mathematics) Also: normal at right angles to a horizontal plane
2. (Architecture) denoting, relating to, or having the style of Gothic architecture used in England during the 14th and 15th centuries, characterized by tracery having vertical lines, a four-centred arch, and fan vaulting
3. upright; vertical
n
4. (Mathematics) geometry a line or plane perpendicular to another
5. (Tools) any instrument used for indicating the vertical line through a given point
6. (Mountaineering) mountaineering a nearly vertical face
[C14: from Latin perpendiculāris, from perpendiculum a plumb line, from per- through + pendēre to hang]
perpendicularity n
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

## per•pen•dic•u•lar

(ˌpɜr pənˈdɪk yə lər)

1. vertical; straight up and down; upright.
2. meeting a given line or surface at right angles.
3. maintaining a standing or upright position; standing up.
4. having a sharp pitch or slope; steep.
5. (cap.) of or pertaining to the last phase of English Gothic architecture, prevailing from the late 14th to early 16th century, characterized by predominantly vertical tracery and the use of the fan vault.
n.
6. a perpendicular line, plane, or position.
7. an instrument for indicating the vertical line from any point.
[1350–1400; Middle English perpendiculer(e) < (Anglo-French, Old French) < Latin perpendiculāris vertical =perpendicul(um) plumb line (see perpend2, -i-, -cule2) + -āris -ar1]
per`pen•dic`u•lar′i•ty, n.

## per·pen·dic·u·lar

(pûr′pən-dĭk′yə-lər)
Intersecting at or forming a right angle or right angles.
Noun
A line or plane that is perpendicular to a given line or plane.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
 Noun 1 perpendicular - a straight line at right angles to another linestraight line - a line traced by a point traveling in a constant direction; a line of zero curvature; "the shortest distance between two points is a straight line" 2 perpendicular - a Gothic style in 14th and 15th century England; characterized by vertical lines and a four-centered (Tudor) arch and fan vaultingGothic architecture, Gothic - a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed archesTudor architecture - a style of English-Gothic architecture popular during the Tudor period; characterized by half-timbered houses 3 perpendicular - a cord from which a metal weight is suspended pointing directly to the earth's center of gravity; used to determine the vertical from a given pointplumb linecord - a line made of twisted fibers or threads; "the bundle was tied with a cord"lead line, sounding line - (nautical) plumb line for determining depthplumb, plumb bob, plummet - the metal bob of a plumb lineplumb rule - a plumb line attached to a narrow board 4 perpendicular - an extremely steep faceface - a vertical surface of a building or cliff Adj. 1 perpendicular - intersecting at or forming right angles; "the axes are perpendicular to each other"oblique - slanting or inclined in direction or course or position--neither parallel nor perpendicular nor right-angled; "the oblique rays of the winter sun"; "acute and obtuse angles are oblique angles"; "the axis of an oblique cone is not perpendicular to its base"parallel - being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting; "parallel lines never converge"; "concentric circles are parallel"; "dancers in two parallel rows" 2 perpendicular - at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line; "a vertical camera angle"; "the monument consists of two vertical pillars supporting a horizontal slab"; "measure the perpendicular height"verticalsteep - having a sharp inclination; "the steep attic stairs"; "steep cliffs"straight - having no deviations; "straight lines"; "straight roads across the desert"; "straight teeth"; "straight shoulders" 3 perpendicular - extremely steep; "the great perpendicular face of the cliff"steep - having a sharp inclination; "the steep attic stairs"; "steep cliffs"
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

## perpendicular

1. the perpendicular wall of sandstone
2. a narrow, exposed beach and perpendicular cliffs
3. at right angles, at 90 degrees The left wing dipped until it was perpendicular to the ground.
Collins Thesaurus of the English Language – Complete and Unabridged 2nd Edition. 2002 © HarperCollins Publishers 1995, 2002

## perpendicular

At right angles to the horizon or to level ground:
Translations
عَمودي، مُتَعامِد
kolmýsráznýsvislý
lodret
merőleges
lóîréttur
statmenaistatmenas
perpendikulārs, vertikāls, statenisks
normalvinkelrät

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːpənˈdɪkjʊləʳ]
1. (Math) → perpendicular
2. (Archit) perteneciente al estilo gótico de los siglos XIV y XV en Gran Bretaña
B. N
to be out of (the) perpendicularsalir de la perpendicular, no estar a plomo
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːrpənˈdɪkjʊlər]
to be perpendicular to sth → être perpendiculaire à qch
n
the perpendicular →
to restore sth to the perpendicular →
The pillar had been restored to the perpendicular → Le pilier avait été remis à la verticale.
Collins English/French Electronic Resource. © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

## perpendicular

senkrecht (to zu); the wall is not quite perpendicular to the ceiling; a perpendicular cliff
(Archit) → perpendikular
nSenkrechte f; to drop a perpendicularein Lot fällen; to be out of perpendicularnicht im Lot sein
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

## perpendicular

[ˌpɜːpnˈdɪkjʊləʳ]
1. adj (gen) (Math) → perpendicolare; (cliff) → a picco
2. n
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995

## perpendicular

standing, rising etc straight upwards; vertical. a perpendicular cliff.
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary © 2006-2013 K Dictionaries Ltd.

## perpendicular

a. perpendicular.
English-Spanish Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
References in classic literature ?
The fuci and llianas grew in rigid perpendicular lines, due to the density of the element which had produced them.
I have looked at her, in a state so dun and lethargic, that I have thought of nothing but the number of horizontal lines I could draw across her at the full, and the number of perpendicular lines with which I could intersect them." He added in his inward and pondering manner, as he looked at the moon, "It was twenty either way, I remember, and the twentieth was difficult to squeeze in."
The lacerations occurred oftenest in horizontal lines, though there were perpendicular lines as well.
But what most puzzled and confounded you was a long, limber, portentous, black mass of something hovering in the centre of the picture over three blue, dim, perpendicular lines floating in a nameless yeast.
They then abandoned the perpendicular line, and made a sharp turn westward toward Ghat, guided, with difficulty, by the Touaregs.
Brightly, but the perpendicular line of perplexity between his brows was not smoothed away.
As it was, the gun was dismounted at the critical moment that Benjamin was applying his pipe to the priming, and in consequence some five or six dozen of rifle bullets were projected into the air, in nearly a perpendicular line. Philosophy teaches us that the atmos- phere will not retain lead; and two pounds of the metal, moulded into bullets of thirty to the pound, after describing an ellipsis in their journey, returned to the earth rattling among the branches of the trees directly over the heads of the troops stationed in the rear of their captain.
'A grid can be defined as a grating of crossed bars or a network of horizontal and perpendicular lines, uniformly spaced, for locating points on a map, by means of a system or coordination.' Nurayah adds, 'Derived from simpler designs, used in earlier cultures (Greek, Roman and Neo-Persian), Islamic patterns provide a visual confirmation of the grid complexity achievable with simple tools.' The key phrase here is 'grid complexity'.
It is better to use more than one reference plane to reach more judicious diagnosis.17 Alternatively perpendicular lines from SN and FH planes can be used for cephalometric diagnosis.18
Inspired by the Tuwaiq mountains, the perpendicular lines in the logo reflect the potential of young Saudi men and women.
Join up the center and any point to form vector, for example, creating vectors toward A, B, and C, respectively, from the center, construct perpendicular lines from all points of symptoms toward this vector and its extension line; the closer the vertical point to the positive direction of the vector is, the more preferred this method is.
Cylindrocopturus biradiatus is smaller, with a mean length of 3.32 mm, it has frontal and lateral areas of the pronotum with orange color and light brown lines running parallel on the inner margin of the elytra with small perpendicular lines of the same color forming crosses that do not reach the outer margin of the elytra.

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