WMI pioneered the combination of library with museum, a concept that evolved from Maclure's emphasis on education, and in particular, the Pestalozzian
Russwurm left New York to visit Boston and learn what usefulness the Pestalozzian
method might have in developing a school system for repatriates.
Makinae (2010) identifies the Pestalozzian
learner-centered theory of Swiss origin as having an initial and continuing influence on the form and focus of Lesson Study, in particular the principle of the "object lesson." This "object lesson" principle involved using direct concrete observation before abstract verbal teaching.
At the same time, his emphasis on experience and the child's direct engagement in almost all aspects of learning suggests his empiricism was more strongly influenced by Pestalozzian
ideas than was true of Northend or Orcutt.
ideas signaled a turning point in nineteenth-century education.
Between 1915 and 1933, with the increasing popularity of Pestalozzian
principles and manual training, critics from within education circles accused history of education courses of being too traditional and theoretical for the times.
In 1867 he founded the Oswego Normal School which quickly developed an internationally recognized Pestalozzian
teacher preparation program, attracting visitors from as far away as Japan.
Although based on the Pestalozzian
axiom of the spiritual goodness of the child, there was also a belief that the young had to be liberated from the corrupting influence of the sexual union from which they were formed.
The realm of music education held its own special problems for the Pestalozzian
For instance, Edward Sheldon is singled out among educators who first incorporated Pestalozzian
principles in school curricula and teacher training (Winship 1900; Barnes 1911; Rogers 1961).
The first effort to import Pestalozzi's intended use of education of the mind and hands into the United States occurred in 1809, when the first Pestalozzian
school was opened in Philadelphia through the philanthropy of William Maclure (Bennett 1917, 1926; Keller 1948; Struck 1930).