Although women who practiced Pestalozzianism significantly influenced the development of pedagogy in the early-nineteenth century, their names rarely appear in connection to Pestalozzi and some are absent from the historical record.
PESTALOZZIANISM AND THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN FEMALE SEMINARIES
By the late 1820s, the seeds of Pestalozzianism were taking root in New York, Massachusetts, and other the New England states in two ways: first, educational reformers made trips to Prussia to see first-hand how his ideas were being implemented in their public schools and teacher training institutions; and, second, publications such as journals and books that explained his ideas and methods were printed in the eastern states and distributed widely in the West.
Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism: Life, educational principles, and methods of John Henry Pestalozzi; with biographical sketches of several of his assistants and disciples.
Educating with heart, head, and hands: Pestalozzianism, women seminaries, and the spread of progressive ideas in Indian Territory.
In Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism Adolph Diesterweg described the revitalizing change that followed Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi's efforts in the field of education and educational methods of instruction.
Although Lyon put primary emphasis on religious instruction, teaching methodology contained strong evidence of Pestalozzianism. In her Recollections Lyon pointed out that teachers must make their instruction as comprehensible and interesting as possible by using objects, sparking interest, proceeding from simple to complex, encouraging learning through play, and avoiding physical punishment (Fiske 1866, 331-2).
to view American Pestalozzianism as having its origins in Horace Mann or Edward Sheldon.
While both Mann's and Sheldon's affinity for Pestalozzian pedagogy has been well documented, one tendency in the historical literature is to portray American Pestalozzianism as being watered down from its original formulation.
In The National Experience, Lawrence Cremin adheres to this basic assessment, arguing that Mann's "pedagogical ideas were wholly derivative--a potpourri of contemporary liberalism rooted in phrenology, Pestalozzianism, Scottish common-sense philosophy, and Boston Unitarianism ..." (Cremin 1980, 140).
One departure from this thesis is presented by Christine Ogren, who recognizes the beginnings of Pestalozzianism in America as being promoted by multiple educators including Henry Barnard, John Dickinson and Cyrus Peirce (Ogren 2005, 34-38).
In the main, the history of education literature does not fully explore the Judeo-Christian aspects of American Pestalozzianism; however, a recent study, from outside the field of educational history challenges this trend.