With a provocative reference to the Nazi mass organization of leisure--Kraft durch Freude (5)--Marcuse concludes: "The working communities of the phalanstere
anticipate 'strength through joy' rather than freedom" (218).
The architectural apparatus designed to facilitate phalanx living, the phalanstere
, consists of an open-air promenade and dormitories, all interconnected by a network of sprawling passageways.
Ne isimtis ir velesni bandymai Europoje ir Amerikoje kurti komunas, utopines bendruomenes arba joms tinkamas architekturines bei urbanistines strukturas: Phalanstere
, New Harmony, Oneida, Familistere ir kiti bandymai iliustruoja dar viena kolektyvizmu gristu eksperimentu banga.
Benjamin appears particularly fascinated by Fourier's notion of "explosion": "The propagation of the phalanstery takes place through an 'explosion.' Fourier speaks of an 'explosion du phalanstere
'" (Arcades Project, 625).
Qu'il suffise de mentionner la creation de bourses du travail par des compagnons de metier voulant echapper aux lois du marche du travail, la mise sur pied de journaux ouvriers par des editeurs progressistes ou encore les tentatives d'implantation d'un phalanstere
ouvrier par un groupe de francs-macons americains installes au Bas-Canada (27) [TABLEAU 4].
Thus, he saw in the organisation of the phalanstere
a potentially harmful curtailment of individual liberty, tending always to the austerity of the 'convent or ...
Skipping from Charles Fourier's phalanstere
to Ebenezer Howard's garden city and Richard Neutra's Rush City Reformed to Buckminster Fuller's Dome over Manhattan, the project bridges the work of theorists and planners usually separated by gulfs of ideology.
Among those idealistic attempts, only the first one analyzed--the Phalanstere
of Tempul--was valid historically; the other two--the Humanisphere and the Monastery of El Cuervo--are chimeras invented by Patino.
In his subsequent discussion of Fourier the focus is on his views of sexual liberty and understanding of labour which underlie the images of the Phalanstere
, seeing it all as a reaction to the economic relations of his society and their impact on the humanity of the members of that society.
(3) Education played a central role in Fourier's utopian vision of the ideal community based on social harmony, which he called the phalanstere
. He recognized that people would have to be educated differently and from a very young age in order to thrive in these communities.
is grounded in crank science.