is a proof of this, where, though the place is small, yet the citizens have great power, from the prudent use they make of it.
There are many indications that modern Pharsalus
is ancient Phthia.
Classics scholars from Europe, Australia, and the US discuss writers like Lucretius, Eratosthenes, Strabo, Aelius Aristides, Seneca, Pindar, and Ovid, and places like Mount Etna, Teuthrania and Pergamon, the Alban Hills, central Greece, the battle of Actium, the Troad, Thessaly, Augustan Rome, the Black Sea region, the battle of Pharsalus
, Attica, and the walls of Thebes.
Labienus, a prominent figure in Caesar's writings, appears only to deliver an account of Pompey's defeat at Pharsalus
to the court of Ptolomy.
While rules and conventions have been devised to make competition less brutal, victory and defeat establish innocence and guilt respectively, as Lucan's Julius Caesar cynically points out to his troops that the battle of Pharsalus
will establish "who took up arms more justly; this battle will make the loser guilty: quis iustius arma,/ sumpserit; haec acies victum factura nocentem est.
He manages to provide a striking portrait of the mixed and ambivalent feelings of Caesar's and Pompeius' troops who were about to fight each other in the battle of Pharsalus
Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus
in 48 BCE but was assassinated by Brutus, Cassius, and other senators in 44 BCE.
After Caesar's decisive victory against Pompey, at Pharsalus
(48 BC), all the territories under Roman domination will have a new political configuration.
After the Battle of Pharsalus
in the Roman civil wars, the virtuous Pompey is betrayed by Ptolemy and beheaded, and Cleopatra, returned from exile, is crowned at the end of the play.
A brief Spanish campaign which ended with the surrender of Cordoba was followed by two battles in Greece: an inconclusive action at Dyrrhachmium followed by the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus
, and his flight to Alexandria (where he was murdered).
The reference is to the young king Ptolemy XH of Egypt, who with the help of Theodotus, his adviser, and Achillas, the commander of his army, arranged the murder of Pompey who was seeking refuge in Egypt after Pharsalus
in 48 B.
I had almost lost interest in Caesar after Pharsalus
, the climatic battle of the civil war when Caesar beat Pompey.