Each member uses a voice technique called pharyngealization
in which the vocal cords are compressed by phonatory blocking.
patterns in Cairo Arabic, a sociolinguistic study of two neighborhoods.
The Phonology of Pharyngeals and Pharyngealization in Pre-Modern Aramaic.
Parameters of Emphasis: Autosegmental Analyses of Pharyngealization in Four Languages.
patterns in Cairo Arabic: A sociolinguistic study of two neighborhoods.
The latter authors state that "the four most commonly-occurring types are labialization, typically realized as the addition of lip-rounding to the primary articulation; palatalization, typically involving the raising and fronting of the tongue body in the direction of the hard palate; velarization, typically realized as tongue backing; and pharyngealization
, involving the retraction of the tongue root" (1995: 284-285, cf.
This presumably included any coarticulations, except for the pharyngealization
of retroflexes, which seems ubiquitous in south India.
I shall not discuss here the plausibility or otherwise of Norman's theory of pharyngealization
as the original distinguishing feature of the "marked" category, of which I remain quite unpersuaded.
In a sense, pharyngealization
is the opposite of palatalization; in the case of the latter process the body of the tongue is moved forward rather than being retracted.