asb, the pharyngealized
form for 'horse', occurs far and wide within the Iranian linguistic zone, including the Lori of Khuzistan, some Central Plateau dialects, and Kulabi Tajik.
First tone vowels are neither pharyngealized
, nor accompanied by a glottal stop.
Denton remarks that "the rhotics of the modern European Germanic languages include virtually every conceivable rhotic articulation from labial fricatives to uvular trills and pharyngealized
approximants" (2003: 40) and goes on to say that it would be unrealistic to expect the same phonetic value of Germanic *r across all early dialects.
26-27), and the further diagrams showing the opposition of pharyngealized
Lonnet and Simeone-Serelle also confirm that the emphatic consonants of MSA are glottalized rather than pharyngealized
, placing MSA with Ethiopic, against Arabic; this supports the conclusion that Proto-Semitic emphatics were glottalized ejectives.
In these, the tongue body took vowel-like positions: i-like for palatalized, w-like (with no lip rounding) for velarized, and a-like for pharyngealized.
It then became clear that alveolar /r/ was uvularized rather than pharyngealized, i.
His dependence on Karlgren's Qieyun reconstruction is obvious in his recent foray into Old Chinese reconstruction (1994), which starts with the premise that "palatalization," as marked by the palatal glide or yod that Karlgren (followed by Li) reconstructed as a medial in so-called "Division III" rhymes, was characteristic of more than half the syllables in the Qieyun - a typological anomaly that Norman seeks to explain as a reversal of an earlier state of affairs in which the remainder of the syllables were pharyngealized
consonants are incompatible with palatalization.