Pharyngobranchial

Pha`ryn`go`bran´chi`al


a.1.(Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pharynx and the branchiæ; - applied especially to the dorsal elements in the branchial arches of fishes. See Pharyngeal.
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1984), the teeth on rakers usually of predatory fishes; gill raker tubercle, tooth-bearing structure, smaller than a plate; pharyngeal tooth plate, tooth-bearing pharyngeal bone on the floor or roof of the pharynx; pharyngobranchial tooth plate, a bony plate covered with teeth and situated at the top of the gill arch; rib, vertical straight or twisted bone structure on the cores of rakers; rudimentary gill raker, weakly developed, not yet ossified tiny rakers at one or both ends of an arch; tooth plate (= dentigerous plate), a general term for a flattened bony tooth-bearing structure on the floor or roof of the pharynx; tooth socket, the depression which holds the root of a tooth.
The pharyngobranchial apparatus is formed by two large pharyngeal plates resembling a Y at the lower orobranchial and by two opposing, comparatively small and elliptic plates at the upper orobranchial.
According to Johnson the configuration found in the members of the genus Lepidogalaxias is unlike that found in fishes such as stomiiforms and aulopiforms, since the former "retain insertion of the third internal levator on the fourth pharyngobranchial cartilage", this "lack of the associated neoteleostean modification" being "at least consistent with an independent origin of the 'retractor dorsalis' of Lepidogalaxias".
Owiyeye and Anablepsoides share two derived conditions (frontal squamation S-patterned and a transverse stripe through chin), but it is parsimoniously considered to a member of a clade also including Laimosemion and Melanorivulus, mainly diagnosed by the absence of second pharyngobranchial teeth.
A phylogenetic analysis for the Sciaenidae by Sasaki (1989) that used morphological, osteological, and myological evidence concluded that Seriphus is broadly separated from Cynoscion by possessing the following characters: an enlarged and anteriorly located toothplate on the pharyngobranchial 2, the flexor ventralis externus fades into the flexor ventralis, the basiphenoid is separate from the parasphenoid ventrally, a dentary foramen is present, there is a secondary reversal from an enlarged and anteriorly located tooth plate on pharyngobranchial 2, the posterior dorsal fin spines are not exposed, and the soft dorsal and anal fin bases are of equal length.
1) After penetrating the mesoderm, the pharyngobranchial ducts of the third and fourth pouches typically lose their pharyngeal connections.
These were the sagittal otolith (OTO), as well as the interhyal (INTE), hypobranchial 3 (HYPO), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), angular (ANGU), quadrate (QUAD), and the dentary (DENT).
The pharyngobranchial region, the part of the animal posterior to the mouth and ventral to the orbits and pectoral fins, is generally not well preserved, and the number of branchial pouches and branchial openings is uncertain.
Anterior three gill arches each of hypobranchial, ceratobranchial, epibranchial and pharyngobranchial, fourth arch of ceratobranchial and epibranchial, fifth arch comprising single ceratobranchial.
Bones included the angular (ANG), quadrate (QUAD), interhyal (INTE), dentary (DENT), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), and hypobranchial 3 (HYPO) (Fig.
2004, this issue) and included the sagittal otolith (OTO), as well as the interhyal (INTE), hypobranchial 3 (HYPO), pharyngobranchial 2 (PHAR), angular (ANGU), quadrate (QUAD), and the dentary (DENT).