"We show the first unambiguous evidence of ionospheric bow waves as electron content disturbances over central/eastern United States, with AaAaAeAc1/4 1 h duration, 300 6 400 km wavelength and 280 m/s phase speed
emanati from and tailing the totality region," they wrote in (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL076054/full) the paper.
where [eta] denotes the deviation of the isopycnal surface from its undisturbed location (measured at a depth that corresponds to the maximum of the vertical mode), c is the phase speed
of long internal waves, [alpha] is the coefficient at the quadratic term (often called the quadratic nonlinearity coefficient), [[alpha].sub.1] is the coefficient at the cubic term (often called the cubic nonlinearity coefficient) and [beta] is the coefficient at the linear (dispersive) term and is sometimes called the dispersion coefficient.
Figure 7a shows the phase speed
[c.sub.p] of the upstream short wave and the upstream-advancing speed [c.sub.n] of the solitary wave (or that of the flat elevated wave for Bo > 0.30).
A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed
and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation.
He found that the energy propagation by group velocity can be much faster than wind velocity or wave phase speed
so that new waves can quickly form ahead of the initial ones.
It is clear from Figure 1 that both the modes (I and II) are propagating in opposite direction to each other, that is, I-mode propagating in the direction of wave propagation (-z axis) whereas II-mode propagating opposite direction of wave propagation with equal phase speed
. Magnitude of phase constant of I- and II-modes excluding quantum effect increase slowly with increment in carrier drift but including QE phase constant is nearly nonvariant up to [E.sub.0] = 4.3 x [10.sup.5] V[m.sup.-1].
4 that the phase speed
[[upsilon].sub.p] of the dielectric loaded sheath helix is approximately 13% of the speed of light.
In order to discuss the problem in greater detail and to find out the effects of the rotation speed [OMEGA] of the body, propagation angle [theta], attenuation angle [gamma] on the phase speed
[c.sub.p], and attenuation coefficient A of the inhomogeneous wave, we have computed them by taking the following piezoelectric material parameters in Table 1.
where k is wave number and v is complex phase speed
Two solutions present the dispersion curves of two fast waves that propagate in different directions with the same phase speed
; they are called edge waves.
A pair of hydrophones or transducers transmits and receives a series of short monochromatic bursts of varying frequencies from which the attenuation and phase speed
in the bubbly liquid are determined.