The injection administrated for the upper respiratory tract infection was decisive for NSTIs onset, because a plausible necrosis in the site of injection could have been infected by bacterial translocation inserting the needle or bacterial implantation after a transient bacteremia as an effect of respiratory phlogosis
. The delayed clinical presentation could be strictly correlated to the administered therapy and to her state of immunosuppression [3, 4], since she showed up to hospital at a very late stage after the injection.
These cytokines, along with AT-1, which triggers the activity of NOX through I[kappa]B inhibition, are also involved in inflammatory ROS production, further exacerbating phlogosis
The patient improved with no clinical symptoms of cervical abscess or evidence of phlogosis
. He was discharged 9 days after admission, with a postdischarge treatment of oral metronidazole (500 mg every 12 h for 3 d).
Standard blood and urine analysis documented elevated phlogosis
indexes (C-reactive protein 13.0 mg/dL) and leucocyturia (WBC 500/ [micro]l).
Acute episodes are associated with increased laboratory phlogosis indicators, particularly erythrosedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), SAA, and fibrinogen; other laboratory findings may include neutrophil leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, anemia, and, less frequently, an increase in immunoglobulins, particularlyclasses A and D .
During acute episodes, and sometimes also in asymptomatic periods, there is a marked increase in phlogosis indicators (ESR, CRP, and SAA), as well as neutrophil leukocytes, aptoglobin, fibrinogen, and platelets [5, 6].
In this case, trauma could act as co-factor that favours the adhesion and the penetration of the yeast, sustains phlogosis
of the palate and increases the permeability of the epithelium to toxins and soluble agents produced by Candida yeast.
The pathological evaluation carried out at the pathology department revealed a high-grade tumour with lamina propria involvement (T1G3) and wide consensual phlogosis
. A second-look TUR-B was performed 6 weeks after the first one and confirmed the prior diagnosis without muscular-layer spread.
The initial phlogosis
was more intense and occurred sooner after the second and the third injections.
Tests of respiratory function showed a large number of obstructive syndromes; scanning electron microscopy highlighted qualitative and quantitative alterations of the alveolar macrophages; and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of electron-dense cytoplasmatic inclusions indicating intense and active phlogosis (external inflammation).
Under transmission electron microscopy, electron-dense cytoplasmatic inclusions were present, indicating intense and active phlogosis.
Concerning the monoterpenes, carvacrol was reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (Wagner et al., 1986) and to act as antioxidant and free radical scavenger (Halliwell et al., 1995; Burits and Bucar, 2000; Dapkevicius et al., 2002), an effect that could reduce the inflammatory oxidative stress and the phlogosis
. Therefore, the terpenoids from L.