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Any of various hemagglutinins found in plants. Phytohemagglutinins are abundant in certain uncooked beans and can be toxic if ingested.
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24 Peripheral blood samples were collected from all patients into heparin test tube (BD) and cultured for 72 hours in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with foetal bovine serum and phytohaemagglutinin. Cytogenetic analysis was performed for all patients using GTG banding technique.
Chromosomal analysis was performed on cultured lymphocytes for which culture medium was prepared by mixing specific proportions of RPMI 1640 (in liquid form), Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), L.
To generate short-term cultures of activated T cells, splenocytes were activated by the addition of the lectin phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml in RPMI supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum for 4 days [32].
Immunodeficiency workup revealed elevated immunoglobulin levels, protective vaccine titers, and normal lymphocyte counts and response to phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen.
Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint-Quentin Fallavier, France) and propidium iodide from Fisher Scientific (Leicestershire, UK).
Cultures were set up in duplicate in two independent experiments by adding 0.5 ml of whole blood to 4.5 ml of RPMI medium with L-glutamine and NaHC[O.sub.3] (Sigma) supplemented with 10% or 2% FBS (Sigma), phytohaemagglutinin (Remel, 0.18 mg/ml,) and antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin, Gibco) in 9 [cm.sub.2] flasks.
PBMCs (0.5 X 105) in 200 [micro]l of RPMI 1640/FCS were added to each well of a 96-well round-bottomed plate and incubated for 8-10 days with 10 [micro]mol of one of the following: Sp17(1), Sp17(2), Sp17(3), Sp17(4), Sp17(5), Sp17(6), or the control HIV peptides, 10 ^g/ml phytohaemagglutinin (PHA; Sigma-Aldrich Co.
ACh and AChE are primarily known as constituents in cholinergic neuronal signalling pathways, but immune cells have been shown to use ACh as a paracrine signalling molecule [16], and AChE and cholinergic receptors are upregulated in immune cells when exposed to phytohaemagglutinin [17].
A normal neutrophil oxidative burst was observed in the patient's blood sample following phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation (Dihydrorhodamine Flow Cytometric Test, Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories, Rochester, MN).
We also evaluated if WJ-MSC were capable of inhibiting phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) mitogen-stimulated T cells after being licensed by IFN-[gamma] and if these different cytokine profiles impact upon the immunosuppressive potential of WJ-MSC.
One tube contained only heparin as negative (nil) control, another one contained T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin as positive control, and the third tube had overlapping peptides representing the entire sequences of ESAT-6, CFP-10, and TB7.7.