Vegetation near and above the spring is characterized by a mix of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis
), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), gambel oak (Quercus gamblii), and other mountain shrub species (Rosacea and Hydrangeacea families).
(2004) Pinus contorta Estados Unidos MacDonald e Huffman (2004) Pinus densiflora Japao Kawamoto et al.(2007) Pinus edulis
Estados Unidos Robinson et al.
However the seeds of the pinyon pines (Pinus edulis
and Pinus monophylla) which produce in the south-western US and in northern Mexico are known as pinon nuts.
In a second series of experiments at the same study site, the researchers set out to find out what noise might mean for tree seeds and seedlings, using one of the dominant trees in the area - the pinon pine (Pinus edulis
Species studied in this investigation include pinyon (Pinus edulis
Voss.), one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma Sarg.) and Rocky Mountain juniper (J.
Among the six species that grow in the American Southwest, two--the single-leaf pi-on (Pinus monophylla) and the Colorado pi-on, or true pi-on (Pinus edulis
Primordia of Pinus edulis
strobili are produced in winter buds that form between August and October.
Clark's Nutcrackers are principal seed dispersers for several western pines with large, wingless seeds: white-bark (Pinus albicaulis), limber, Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis
), singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) (for a review see Tomback and Linhart  and references therein), and probably southwestern white in its northern range (Pinus strobiformis, Benkman et al.
Semiarid pinyon-juniper woodland is one of the most widespread vegetation types of the continental United States, covering approximately 20-30 million ha, and codominated by two-pinyon pine (Pinus edulis
) and one-seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) (Miller and Wigand, 1994).
The Fallax pinyon pine, listed in the Register as Pinus edulis
The utilization of Pinus edulis
seeds--also called pinon nuts, pine nuts, and Indian nuts--has declined dramatically since its peak in the 1930s.
Key words: ectomycorrhizae; environmental stress; herbivory; herbivore removal; Pinus edulis