The early chapters on the tenures of Popes Pius VI
and Pius VII, Leo XII and Pius VIII will be news to many non-specialist readers and they make Collins' case that the papacy at this time was weak and, frankly, lucky to survive the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
got to contemplate his own profile on his ring, rendered entirely in diamonds; Leo XIII had to make do with his name in sapphires, but the rest of his clasp, with its design featuring a crown and keys to the pearly gates, offers about 700 diamonds to compensate.
Neatly divided into manageable sections, the volume covers more than 230 years of history and seventeen papacies, from Pius VI
The 1789 French Revolution quickly turned against the church and French armies invaded Italy, forcing Pope Pius VI
Incidentally, I addressed him as Pope Pius VI
instead of Pope Paul the first time that I named him.
This has been a part of the museums' mandate since the 1.8th century, when Popes Clement XIV and Pius VI
became some of the first European rulers to open their collections to the public.
Vienna was also not abject to flexing its political independence from Rome, as indicated by the visit of Pope Pius VI
to the Habsburg capital in 1782.
For Pope Pius VI
, however, Joseph II's policy of religious toleration and his plans for church reform, which included placing the Church under state control and suppressing the contemplative orders due to their "uselessness" for the common good, were a serious threat.
Nancy Nowakowski Robinson, Institutional Anti-Judaism: Pope Pius VI
and the "Edict Concerning the Jews" in the Context of the Inquisition and the Enlightenment
Author of several books on the topic, including a widely respected contribution on Vatican-Jewish relations, he is well placed to survey the popes' engagement in politics since the French Revolution--that is, since the age of Pius VI
Giovanni Angelo Braschi, who became Pope Pius VI
, was born on Christmas Day in 1717.
He will move ahead of Pope Pius VI
, who ruled a day less from 1775 to 1799.