In 1909, it stood witness to Pope Pius X
's beatification of Joan of Arc.
The Roman Catholic Church will honor tomorrow the memory of Saint Pius X
, the Pope of the Holy Eucharist.
On the other hand, the dramatic shift in the second part to the changes made by Pope Pius X
suggests instead that confessional practice took a new and troubling turn.
Yet astute historians, seeking a deeper understanding of the war that set the twentieth century on a course to be the most violent in the history of the world, will find even richer insight in Benedict's inspired encyclical, one that resonates with Neitzsche but also echoes Pius X
's denunciation of "Modernism" as the source of the moral dislocation and strife the Holy Father was addressing.
(3) A study of the relations between the popes of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the Italian state casts light on some of the motivating forces shaping the attitudes of the leading papal musical reformer of the period, Pope Pius X
, (4) as does the recent work of probably the leading Australian scholar researching in the field of Italian history.
Like the Catholic Church of the early 20th century, the earl and butler of Downton Abbey seem to have taken Pope Pius X
's oath against modernism, and like the recent papacy, they regard every challenge to their authority as an affront to the institution itself.
Following Pius X
's great emphasis on frequent communion in the early twentieth century, monthly communion moved toward normative among the laity.
Historian Sheridan Gilley writes, "Catholic England came of age, when Pope Pius X
in his Constitution Sapienti Consilio of 29 June 1908 declared England no longer a missionary territory" (34).
He notes that even after Pope Pius X
's 1907 condemnation of Modernism, Catholic scholars continued to do innovative work in a variety of disciplines from anthropology to psychology to theology.
The central thread of Pius X
's papacy was his opposition to Modernism, the drive to reinterpret Catholic teaching in the light of modern science, the theory of evolution and critical analysis of the Bible (the 'higher criticism').
Instead, the conclave of 1903 elected Pius X
, whom the Italian government had dubbed "the most intransigent of the intransigents." Pius X
launched a vast crackdown against "modernism," meaning virtually every attempt to reconcile Catholic thought with the new century, silencing some theologians, excommunicating others, and setting up a network of informants to identify those entertaining unacceptable thoughts.
That past is exemplified by the policies of Pius X
, who reigned from 1903 to 1914 and who is still workshiped by ultraconservatives for combating the plague of modernism.