It is observed from Figure 6(b) that the design using the lower lift coefficient distribution yields a large chord length to produce the same thrust, which leads to a blade geometry with a relatively large planform area
. It can be confirmed from Figures 6(c) and 6(d) that the higher chord Reynolds number yields a higher lift-to-drag ratio, which directly results to a higher efficiency of the propeller.
Because the force exerted on a mussel by wave action depends on size, tenacity was calculated for the same individuals by dividing attachment strength by shell planform area
(Bell & Gosline 1997).
Lift is proportional to the square of the water velocity (U) and the planform area of a mussel (A, its area projected in the direction of lift):
When a circular group of bed mussels is pulled, the planform area of the group is the sum of the planform areas of individuals within the group, approximately [pi][R.sup.2], where R is the group's radius.
Nomenclature c: Chord length [C.sub.L]: Lift coefficient [C.sub.D]: Drag coefficient [C.sub.M]: Moment coefficient D: Drag corce h: Height of trailing edge above the ground h/c: Ground clearance HS: Height of static ctability L: Lift force L/D: Lift-to-drag ratio S: Planform area
of wing [X.sub.cp]: Center of pressure U: Freestream velocity [alpha]: Angle of attack, geometric angle of incidence.
Consider a wing with planform area
A, moving in a 2-dimensional steady wind flow of given absolute wind speed [??] (Fig 11a).
where [rho] is the static pressure, v is the free-stream velocity, and A is the planform area
(i.e., the projection of the rostrum (or foil) onto the z-plane, A = 0.019 [m.sup.2]).
Characteristics of X-HALE remotely piloted aircraft Wingspan 6 meters (m) or 8 m Chord 0.2 m Planform Area
1.2 square meters ([m.sup.2]) or 1.6 [m.sup.2] Aspect Ratio 30 or 40 Length 0.96 m Propeller Diameter 0.3 m Gross Takeoff Weight 11 or 12 kilograms (kg) Power/Weight 30 watts/kg Airspeed 12-18 m/second Maximum Range 3 kilometers Endurance 45 minutes
where [Beta.sub.l] is the velocity exponent of lift and [S.sub.l,pl] is the shape coefficient of lift, and [A.sub.pl] (the planform area
) is the plant or animal's area projected onto the substratum.
To estimate ages of Bossiella and Calliarthron, growth rate ([delta]A/[delta]t) was plotted against total planform area
of each frond (A), and Microsoft Excel software was used to fit a power curve to the data to solve for rate constants K1 and K2:
In contrast, no species of red algae (Rhodophyta) has revealed a correlation between mechanical properties and wave exposure, although differences in both biomass and planform area
have been observed between exposed and protected sites (Carrington, 1990; Pratt and Johnson, 2002).
However, winter dislodgment of thalli from tall intertidal canopies (>4 cm tall) can be as great as 30% (Dudgeon and Johnson, 1992); and the seasonal decrease in biomass of the largest thalli in an intertidal population (which ranged in size from 2.5 [cm.sup.2] to 250 [cm.sup.2] in planform area
) can be as great as 75% (M.