(iii) Five out of 6 experiments in cluster 3 (IDs 9, 28, 29, 31, and 32; Botrytis cinerea, Plasmodiophora
brassicae, and Fusarium oxysporum pv.
Clubroot is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora
brassicae, which causes galls, or knots, in the roots.
annum, Ocimum basilicum Plasmodiophora
brassica (S) Brassica rapa Pratylenchus penetrans Daucus carota (root lesion nematodes; (S)) Ralstonia solanacearum (S) L.
In another study, a large number of differentially expressed defense-related genes were identified between two near-isogenic lines of Brassica rapa at 0-hour postinoculation (hpi), that is, before encountering the pathogen Plasmodiophora
Clubroot disease, caused by the pathogen Plasmodiophora
brassicae, is one of the most serious problems in crucifer cultivation worldwide .
Other fungal diseases like Club root (Plasmodiophora
brassicae), and Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae) can also cause serious yield losses.
Environmental Protection Agency, 2003), tobacco mosaic virus, Plasmodiophora
brassicae, and tomato seeds (Germany; Bundesministerium fur Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, 1998, BioAbfV), Streptococcus feacalis (Denmark; Bendixen, 1994), Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp., and a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, e.g., Escherichia coli (EU; The European parliament and council, 2002.
Sacristan & Hoffman  studied direct infection of embryogenic tissue cultures of haploid Brassica napus with resting spores of Plasmodiophora
The overexpression of defensins and thionins in transgenic plants was demonstrated to reduce development of several different pathogens, including Alternaria, Fusarium, and Plasmodiophora
, and provided resistance to Verticillium on potato under field conditions (Gao et al., 2000).