First, the cleaned titanium substrate is immersed in polycation
(e.g., PEI) to reach a stable positive charge; after removing unconsolidated polycation
, the positive substrate is dipped into polyanion solution to obtain a negative charge, followed by the same rinsing procedures.
Taulelle, "Al30: A Giant Aluminum Polycation
," Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol.
Borsarelli, "Improvement of the amperometric response to l-lactate by using a cationic bioinspired thymine polycation
in a bioelectrode with immobilized lactate oxidase," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol.
Amphiphilic copolymers are used as gene carriers where negatively charged cargo molecules (siRNA, mRNA, small protein or DNA) binds to the polycation
through ionic interactions and polymers condense complex into sub-150-nm particles.
In fact, changing the order addition of polyanion and polycation
solutions affected the formation of stable microparticles.
Molecular hurdles in polyfectin design and mechanistic background to polycation
TAs are macromolecular substances with positively charged surfaces that may include polylysine20 or protamine sulfate.18 With a strong positive/negative interaction SPIO/TA composites are able to adhere to the surface of cell membranes improve the phagocytosis of iron oxide particles and avoid aggregation of SPIO particles.21 For example Frank and colleagues mixed Ferumoxides (Feridex) with USPIO (MION-46 L) and added cationic TAs successfully raising the concentration of intracellular SPIO particles.
A biocompatible arginine-based polycation
. Advanced Functional Materials 2011; 21:434-40.
Istrate, et al., "Interaction of gentamicin polycation
with model and cell membranes," Bioelectrochemistry, Vol.
PEC technique for nanoparticles involves the controlled mixing of diluted polycation
and polyanion solutions that gives the size range of 20 to 500 nm with various shapes such as spherical, toroid, and rod-like shapes or have a loose gel-like shape up to compact internal structure.
A related peptide, VIP, also uses these signaling pathways and cross-adapts with lysozyme and PACAP, suggesting that Tetrahymena are signaling through a generalized polycation
Tan and coworkers introduced ternary nucleic acid complexes, Liposome Polycation
DNA (LPD) where nucleic acids are complexed by protamine before interaction with cationic liposomes to form a core nucleic acid complex surrounded by two lipid bilayers .