To apply our commonplace judgments regarding the progressivity of art would mean either to discard Sophocles, Polykleitos
, Leonardo, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Stendhal, Balzac, Walter Scott, Dickens--or to correct their position in a tendentious way.
To Mariaki (Little Mary) is an early portrait by Polykleitos
Regos (1903-1984), who was one of the best Greek artists that largely focused on landscape and portraiture.
The lost Greek prototypes, by masters such as Praxiteles, Polykleitos
From Kritios and Nesiotes' threateningly advancing musclemen Harmodius and Aristogeiton, known as the Tyrannicides or tyrant killers (477-476 B.C.), and Polykleitos
's athletically balanced Doryphoros in contrapposto (450-400 B.C.) to Myron's unnatural but compellingly dynamic discuss throwing Diskobolus (460-450 B.C.) and Lysippos' monumental leaning Hercules, known to us as the Farnese Hercules (4th century B.C.), Classical Greek sculpture embraced movement to the extent that it sought to blur the lines between bronze and flesh.
He also explored Eleusis, the site of Demeter's ancient mystery cult; Corinth with its half-ruined temple picturesquely silhouetted against the monolithic rock that once housed the city's acropolis; and Sikyon, celebrated for producing some of the greatest artists, including Polykleitos
, Lysippos and Pamphilos, the master of Apelles.
(1) The relief of a revealingly clad maenad who holds a dagger above her head and a butchered animal behind her was the most copied Greek-style work after Polykleitos
I refer to the very prominent iliac crest and to the shape, protuberance and exaggerated ridge of the lower abdomen, well illustrated by Polykleitos
' Doryphoros, or "Spearbearer" (Fig.
In Trecento and Quattrocento Italy, Phidias, Polykleitos
, and Praxiteles were recognized, by way of sources like Pliny the Elder, as legendary-historical sculptors of the highest rank.
From Adolf Fuztwangler, Walter Amelung, and Georg Lippold to Walter-Herwig Schuchhardt, the method was refined, and, over the past few years, has led to a series of monographs devoted to several famous originals transmitted by large series of replicas: aside from those of Polykleitos
, of which an important exhibition in Frankfurt recalled their high favor throughout Antiquity,(9) we shall cite the Cassel Apollo, the Leda of Timotheos, the Satyrs of Praxiteles, the Eros of Lysippos, and the Farnese Hercules,(10) alongside countless detailed articles.
Pollitt is honest enough to admit that Roman copies of Polykleitos
' Doryphoros have been shown to owe more to Augustan ideology of ideal youth than whatever may have been laid down in the (lost) fifth-century `Canon' of Polykleitos
This leads to the room's main event, a trio of sculptures that invite visitors to compare the sculptural styles of Polykleitos
, Myron and Pheidias in the 5th century BC.
To argue for this Haselberger relates the use of entasis in a column to the human figure, specifically to the use of contrapposto as seen in the Doryphoros of Polykleitos
. This comparison was made before by Mavrikios (5) but with nowhere near as complete an analysis or contextualization.