The polymerization reaction
was carried out according to a radical mechanism, where potassium persulphate (KPS) and sodium thiosulphate (NTS) were the redox initiators and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (NNMBA) was the cross-linking monomer.
Properties of resin based cements critical to the success of adhesive restorations include adequate bond strength, low solubility, biocompatibility, color stability, low film thickness and polymerization shrinkage.1 Resin cements are classified according to the filler type (micro, micro, nano), mode of activation (photo, chemical and dual cure) and bonding mechanism (self-etch and total etch).2 Resin cements contain different monomers linked together during polymerization reaction
. The characteristics and properties of resin based cements is dependent on the degree of conversion of monomers to polymers.3
In another major contribution to polymerization reaction
engineering, Bowman was the first to exploit living radical photopolymerizations (LRPs) as a tool to better characterize network material properties, and the use of LRPs to create materials with unique properties not achievable by other polymerization techniques.
In the area of polymerization reaction
modeling, Bowman has published seminal work that addresses the complex relationships among the polymerization kinetics, the monomer chemistry, the polymerization conditions, and the resulting polymer structure.
The reaction mechanism usually involved free-radical polymerization reaction
which largely depends upon the stability of the intermediate transition states, thus the reaction path can be determine by evaluating the stabilities of these states in the reaction mixture [1-4].
Actually, polymerization reaction
is not limited in the C-H bond, and it also occurs in other types of bonds like N-H bond [29, 30].
As the polymerization reaction
proceeds, the amount of monomer and free radicals decrease and due to increase in viscosity and degree of polymerization, it becomes difficult to bring the monomer and free radical together.
The process of polymerization reaction
is shown in Fig.
Reactive extrusion/compounding for many polymerization reaction
systems has been evaluated.
The functionalized chains or "skirts"on one end of these nanorods keeps them localized at the interface and the sites (or "initiators") along the rod's surface trigger a polymerization reaction
with the monomer and cross-linkers in the outer solution.
Without catalyst no polymerization reaction
happens and evidence shows that the embedded catalyst initiated the polymerization of the healing agent.
(17) Thus, CQ activation was probably more efficient, so that the CQ polymerization reaction
was initiated more quickly than the PPD reaction, creating fringes with greater color variation or higher polymerization stress immediately after photo-polymerization.