A 30-cent Portuguese escudo
coin issued in 1958 was also found in the grave, he said.
This was the time taxes fell due and households had to raise cash, in the form of the Portuguese escudo
. Taxes comprised an annual head tax (imposto domiciliario or imposto de capitagao) of 190 escudos on physically healthy males aged from 18 to 60 and a tax on buffaloes, horses, and Bali cattle at 10 escudos a head (Metzner 1977:6, 183, 211).
The shopkeeper generously had thought to educate consumers by quoting the Portuguese escudo
and European Union's euro, in preparation of the euro's introduction as the currency on January 1, 2002.
Accounting for the appreciation of the dollar against the Portuguese escudo
, dollar prices were still up by 18%.
dollar, the Australian dollar, the Indonesian rupiah and the Portuguese escudo
Old hands who remember the Mediterranean rates of a few years ago, will be disappointed by the present rates for the Greek drachma, Italian lira, Spanish peseta and Portuguese escudo
Realignment within the ERM on March 5 that lowered the values of the Spanish peseta and the Portuguese escudo
contributed to the upward movement of the mark.
Speculators in currency saw the contradiction, and their trading last autumn precipitated a tide that swept the lira and the pound sterling from the monetary system and forced the devaluation of the Spanish peseta, the Irish pound and the Portuguese escudo
. Although interest rates are now much lower, the same contradiction was at the heart of last week's confrontation between speculators and central banks.
Italians are the most enthusiastic of the eurozone populations with 83 per cent for it.The Portuguese escudo
came after the abolition of the monarchy in 1910.But the country's euros will return to their royal roots, taking their inspiration from original royal seals.