In the third group, called Prajna
(wisdom), the two elements of Right Understanding and Right Thought are put together.
Buddhism describes this as Prajna
Paramita, i.e., that which is beyond all knowledge.
Being emptiness, she is also the "non-dual wisdom" (ye shes, prajna
; 89) which directly perceives emptiness, since emptiness is non-dualistic, containing neither subject nor object.
Awakened to the way things really are, primal ignorance (avidya) becomes wisdom (prajna
) in seeing that the clinging self does not exist and that all reality is radically interdependent.
As Samkara puts it, "understanding (pra-jna) becomes fixed on the Self alone." While constancy, in both its senses, is clearly intimated, the key question is what Samkara means by prajna
here - which Madhavananda translates as "intellect," indicating a mental faculty.
(12) and 53.0% phacomorphic and 47.0% phacolytic in the study of Prajna
N et al.
Similar findings were seen in studies conducted by Venkatesh Prajna
et al,  Rijal Ap et al  and Yaakub et al  from malaysia.
)--basically, the virtue cultivated as the opposite of the poison of ignorance--as an insight into dependent arising (Skt.
Regarding gender distribution, a male preponderance was also reported by M Jayahar Bharathi et al,  Reema Nath et al,  Prajna
Lalitha et al  in their studies (65.02%, 67.6% and 55.6% respectively).
Having concluded in the above pages that sila is operative throughout the individual's progress on the nikaya Buddhist path, even after the attainment of prajna
, and that the same claim can be made for Mahayana, enhanced by the altruistic utilization of [upaya.sub.1] up to the attainment of the seventh bodhisattva stage, after which [upaya.sub.2] becomes operative, albeit in rather antinomian fashion, it now becomes important to address the issue of whether textually based Buddhist ethics can be truly current; whether an ethical tradition solidly grounded on the textual heritage can serve as the foundational basis for a socially engaged Buddhism, effective in addressing the complex concerns cited in the growing literature on the subject.
(10.) Namperumalsamy V Prajna
, Jeena Mascarenhas, Tiruvengada Krishnan, P Ravindranath Reddy, Lalitha Prajna
, Muthiah Srinivasan, C M Vaitilingam, Kevin C Hong, Salena M Lee, Stephen D McLeod, Michael E Zegans, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Nisha R Acharya.
Instead, he suggests that this desire to help others is derived more from texts and sermons on the importance of compassion, non-violence, and detachment than from the wisdom (konponchi) of prajna
. He also offers the interesting critique that it is not that Zen does not possess a social ethic of well-being and compassion, but rather that it "offers few specifics." Buddhist compassion, he writes, is "a kind of 'theological virtue,' which, like the traditional Christian theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity (or love), orients a Zen Buddhist's feeling and volition but leaves a void insofar as the construct of compassion gives little specific guidance, especially when one dives into the chaotic, complex, and murky waters of politics, nationalism, and international relations" (175).