1467, 1476 (1985); Sunstein, supra note 277, at 990-1006 (discussing various causes of "deliberative failures"); see also MacCoun, supra note 47, at 1048 ("To the extent that a group's average predeliberation
opinion deviates from the neutral point on a bipolar scale, the average postdeliberation opinion will tend to be more extreme in the same direction.").
The effect of deliberation on individual priority selection was measured using odds ratios accounting for within-individual paired responses (i.e., individuals' predeliberation
responses and postdeliberation responses), and the significance of the changes in the selection for each priority was assessed using a multilevel logistic regression model with priority selection as the response variable and with deliberation groups and individuals nested within deliberation groups included as random intercepts to adjust for potential clustering within-groups and within-individuals.
After the videotaped judge's charge, participants were asked to denote their predeliberation
verdicts and then to deliberate during 90 minutes to a unanimous verdict.
831, 839 (2008) ("Ideological amplification seems to be a form of group polarization, reminiscent of empirical findings to the effect that like-minded people, engaged in deliberation with one another, end up at more extreme points in line with their predeliberation
supra note 115, at 209-15 (summarizing studies finding positive effects of note taking and juror questioning in federal trials); Lieberman et at, supra note 116, at 635-36 (noting that "structured predeliberation
discussions may appreciably aid the decision-making process"); Steven D.
First-ballot votes, predeliberation
dispositions, and final verdicts in jury trials.
verdict preferences is a strong predictor
average or majority verdict preference." (101)
Group polarization is the tendency of individuals in deliberating groups to "predictably move toward a more extreme point in the direction indicated by the members' predeliberation
tendencies," (197) while choice shift refers to this same tendency as it manifests in the opinions and decisions of groups as collective entities.
median is the best predictor of the direction of the shift' (Sunstein, 2009, p.
Dillehay, First-Ballot Votes, Predeliberation
Dispositions, and Final Verdicts in Jury Trials, 19 LAW & HUM.
1119, 1135 (2002) ("It is well established that when a group deliberates, group members tend to move toward a more extreme position in line with their predeliberation
inclinations."); James P.