smallness and smallship (both forms are found in Middle English, but smallship has not survived into Present-Day English
and is not even recorded in the OED; see Esteban-Segura 2011).
Mikko Laitinen and Magnus Levin's contribution--"On the Globalization of English: Observations of Subjective Progressives in Present-Day Englishes
" (229-252)--adopts a diachronic perspective on the appropriation of the progressive (in particular, its subjective interpretation with the intervening adverb always) in WE.
The translation into Present-Day English
is from Beths (1999: 1081):
However, the fact that the inflected full form of dare is still found in Present-day English
(PDE) in inversion and with direct negation has tipped the balance in favour of the blend constructions in her study.
Tynan and Delgado Lavin (1997) compare the use of mood and tense in Present-Day English
Likewise I don't expect present-day English
to apologise for the Welsh Not, the Blue Books, Tryweryn etc, etc, ad nauseam, although knowing about one or two of them might thaw relations a little.
This suggests that the present-day English
Department is being
In chapters 3 to 8 Brinton analyzes seven selected pragmatic markers and follows their diachronic development (if applicable) from OE to ME to Present-Day English
. These selected markers are (1) the intensive construction gan ("And ryght anon the wympel gan she fynde" - Chaucer, Legend of Good Women 819, qtd.
The categories naturally change as the topic turns to Middle English verse: the aspects of poetic diction discussed in chapter 6 are compounding, affixation, lexical conversion, blends, loans, aureation, and poetic vocabulary, while the formal features treated in chapter 7 are rhyme, alliteration, the metrical effects of some phonological and syntactic variables (e.g., final -e and types of the genitive), some syntactic options unavailable in Present-Day English
(e.g., the use of the perfect in simple preterite contexts), parataxis, and formulaic diction.
An anonymous American is now the Baron of Owney and Arra in Tipperary after the present-day English
Viscount of Hawarden sold off one of his titles for a cool pounds 23,000.
Warner reminds us of the perils of positing 'auxiliaries' in Old English on the basis of Present-day English
. Koopman, arguing for optional cliticization of Old English personal pronouns, demonstrates that analogies with modern Dutch and German may mislead and that even the transition to Middle English cannot be conjectured without close empirical study.
The process of introducing more ~regular' forms extended over many centuries, but it is assumed that in the sixteenth century the surviving umlauted forms and words are more or less identical with those found in present-day English
. However, this appears not to be (quite) so: