Figure 8 (b, d, and f) depicts the pressure gradients
downstream of the U-bend.
The heating and cooling of the ground over non-flat terrain generate horizontal temperature differences which, in turn, cause horizontal pressure gradients
that produce diurnal wind circulations (Wagner, 1938; Defant, 1949; Whiteman, 2000).
The corresponding pressure gradients
are also shown.
Patients with cirrhosis and esophageal varices have hepatic venous pressure gradients
of 10-12 mm Hg.
Water moves freely between intra-cellular and extra-cellular compartments in response to osmotic pressure gradients
created by effective solutes (Na+, K+, and mannitol) that are impermeable to the cell membrane (1).
Users can determine the degree of sophistication and ease of use for their needs, from the R200 for 50- to 3000-mL flasks, to the top model R-205 Professional with fully automated vacuum control, pressure gradients
and automatic distillation down to dryness.
The projected wind speed due to pressure gradients
caused by the differential heating over land and water is computed to be 6.
Different test heads with different test areas can easily be fitted to the instrument, and 11 pre-programmed pressure gradients
and pressure programs make it possible to test in compliance with any known standard.
Because of the pressure gradients
and flow forces within the lymphotomes, fluid does not cross the watershed in a healthy, normal person.
Permanent reactive barriers', however, such as the CSIRO--University of WA system, can be used underground and should be cheaper overall because natural hydraulic pressure gradients
push the water through the cleansing barriers, removing the need for pumping.
Natural underwater temperature and pressure gradients
create a corridor in which sound can travel for thousands of kilometers.
As the discs rotate, kinetic energy is transferred through layers of fluid molecules passing between the discs, generating velocity and pressure gradients
until the entire fluid mass is in motion.