. Exploring Complexity, New York: Freeman.
Morris); "German and American Students' Perceptions of Social Values as Depicted in Magazine Advertisements: A Copy Testing Approach" (Frauke Hachtmann); "Thank You Newton, Welcome Prigogine
: 'Unthinking' Old Paradigms and Embracing New Directions" (Shelton A.
The Nobel Laureate, the chemist Ilya Prigogine
, often spoke about the new sciences of complexity as being 'in a dialogue with nature' because they revealed the dynamic processes of feedback and change over time.
One of the surprising findings was that even within this uncertainty and chaos, there seemed to exist self-organizing principles that helped systems to develop higher levels of order and organization (Prigogine
& Stengers, 1984).
While these are certainly stirring sentiments, the reasons why Wallerstein thinks we should adopt Prigogine
's revolutionary new approach, or why its extrapolation to social systems is justified, are not entirely obvious.
Understanding of complexity theory reinforces the concept of a complex, interconnected universe (Prigogine
& Stengers, 1996/1997).
Since Schrodinger, many investigators have extended the application of NET to living systems (Prigogine
, 1955; Margalef, 1968; Morowitz, 1968) with many recent advances (Allen, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Schneider, 1988; Wiley, 1988; Choi et al., 1999; Jorgensen et al., 2000; Toussaint and Schneider, 1988).
Chaos theorist Ilya Prigogine
has suggested that indeed, as the old myths always said, the universe emerged out of chaos.
Such an observer is not only conscious of the historicity of his/her language, but is also aware of the arrow of time and the essential flux of the world, the crucial role of human agency in shaping that flux, and the possibility of 'radical novelty' in the world (Castoriad iws 1991; Prigogine
An introductory chapter surveys disorderly order in several fields, connecting, among other things, Wiener's feedback loops, the World Wide Web, Lyotard's science of instabilities, Deleuze and Guattari's rhizomes, nomads, and smooth space, Mandelbrot's fractals, and Prigogine
's work on the spontaneous self-organizing negetropic potential in non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems.