Cerebral palsy(CP) is an irreversible maldevelopment of brain in prenatal, perinatal or postnatal stage, which is demonstrated by prolonged retention of reflexes and abnormal muscular tone.1 Most of the time this motor disability disorder leads to insufficient development of postural reflex mechanism.2 The primitive and retained reflexes cause the abnormal movements, defective visual abilities, learning difficulties and emotional disturbances.3 Brainstem reflexes comprise tonic labyrinthine reflexes (TLRs), asymmetric and symmetric tonic reflexes, and these usually appear throughout the first four months of a child's life.4 These primitive reflexes
are modified afterwards in righting reactions of neck and body that contribute toward the skeletal stabilisation.
Participants were evaluated on five cognitive measures: attention, immediate and delayed memory, ability to Identify visual and spatial relationships among objects, frontal lobe abilities (abstraction, fluency, impulsivity, and primitive reflexes
), and the Mini-Mental State Examination--a 30-point cognitive questionnaire.
Early chapters explain how to observe and examine the hand for grasp and manipulation, outline the anatomical structure of the hand as related to grasp, chart the in utero development of the hand, and discuss the primitive reflexes
that influence grasp.
Based on a series of movement patterns that facilitate neurological feedback to the brain, carefully designed floor exercises - tailored to the individual patient's needs - inhibit primitive reflexes
that have failed to correctly develop in early life or which have been re-released at a later stage through brain injury.
Experts at the University of Nottingham have published research that suggests the human propensity for contagious yawning is triggered automatically by primitive reflexes
in the primary motor cortex -- an area of the brain responsible for motor function.
Rossor, "The grasp and other primitive reflexes
," Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol.
We are born with primitive reflexes
that are designed to meet our needs.
The examination of primitive reflexes
which are essential for the development of biological functioning around the upper digestive track is necessary due to the fact that the observed disorders in the "development" of food intake process might be helpful in predicting the possible speech disorders .