Hale, for instance, argues that 'even primordialists
In context with the origin and continuation of the ethnicity, there are two schools of thought, Primordialists
, and instrumentalists.
An acknowledgment of the gendered construction of the nation is similarly absent in the influential conceptualisations of the primordialists
, such as Edward Shils (1957), Clifford Geertz (1997) and Pierre van den Berghe (1979), who theorise the nation as a continuation or extension of kinship relations and family systems, which misses the complex and intricate intertwinement of gender with projects of nation-building.
(39) Thinking about the origin of regions, Remnev was clearly looking for a compromise position between constructivists and primordialists
. The idea of the geography of power lay at the foundation of his Rossiia Dal 'nego Vostoka (Russia of the Far East), which helped secure his place among the leading historians of Russia "beyond the Urals" and undoubtedly deserves to be translated into English.
'Constructivists' argue that the concept of the 'ethnic group' is a purely cultural construct while the 'primordialists
' maintain that there is a genetic core at the heart of ethnicity.
Adopting a psychological stance, proponents of the primordial perspective (primordialists
) seek to explain strong ethnic attachments (primal bonds), especially those ethnic attachments that persist over time in radically different socio-spatial environments, on the basis of their ineffable, affective and, at times, kinship significance (Shils 1957 and Geertz 1973, cited by Eller and Coughlan 1993; van den Berghe 1978).
This concept of inherited cultural patrimony stands at the heart of the debate which, on a very general level sets the "constructivists" against the "primordialists
The present work does far more than lay out the debate between modernists and primordialists
(though the first two chapters do this with typical lucidity).
(21) The primordialists
include, in particular, representatives such as Samuel P.
Second, scholarship on sectarianism remains bogged down in a polarized argument between primordialists
' perspective, enunciated by Clifford Geertz (1963; Epstein 1978; Shills) is useful for warning us of the presence of the politicized ethnic ties (John Lonsdale's "political tribalism"), but it has a deterministic and "static view" of ethnic conflict.
Within Africa, the criticism of the primordialists
by scholars such as Mafeje and Nnoli was misconstrued as to suggest that the study of ethnicity and the recognition of its political salience was playing into the hands of the erstwhile colonial masters.