proper motion

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proper motion

n.
A gradual change in the position of a star or other object on the celestial sphere that is the result of the object's intrinsic motion through space rather than mere apparent motion as observed from Earth.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

proper motion

n
(Astronomy) the very small continuous change in the direction of motion of a star relative to the sun. It is determined from its radial and tangential motion
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
References in classic literature ?
The motions of factions under kings ought to be, like the motions (as the astronomers speak) of the inferior orbs, which may have their proper motions, but yet still are quietly carried, by the higher motion of primum mobile.
As the foreman of a spinning mill, when he has set the hands to work, goes round and notices here a spindle that has stopped or there one that creaks or makes more noise than it should, and hastens to check the machine or set it in proper motion, so Anna Pavlovna moved about her drawing room, approaching now a silent, now a too-noisy group, and by a word or slight rearrangement kept the conversational machine in steady, proper, and regular motion.
Let such bethink them, if the sleepy drench Of that forgetful Lake benumme not still, That in our proper motion we ascend Up to our native seat: descent and fall To us is adverse.
One year ago, the Gaia mission produced its much-awaited second data release, which included high-precision measurements -- positions, distance and proper motions -- of more than one billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy.
I fired up the CDS's Aladin software and overlaid proper motions from the Gaia DR2 database onto Pan-STARRS imagery of M27 to try to find this previously suspected companion.
(http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hvi/uploads/science_paper/file_attachment/295/clarksonPaper1Submitted_20171213.pdf) A paper on the subject, titled "Chemically-dissected rotation curves of the galactic bulge from main sequence proper motions," was published in the Astrophysical Journal.
The proper motions to establish the Agenda and standing Rules were made.
In these series we have thoroughly studied vortex flows and their statistical occurrences, horizontal velocities by measuring horizontal proper motions, divergence and vorticity; but we have also studied bright point statistics and magnetic field intensification, clearly highlighting the importance of the smallest-scale magnetic element observations.
Gill's collaboration with Kapteyn on the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung (CPD) and subsequent repeat observations had led to the discovery of two "star streams", or preferential groups of proper motions, shared by certain stars [now known to be a reflection of halo and disc populations or old and young stars].
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars' change in position.
Using the GPS method, the parameters of proper motions are determined, together with the directions and velocity of displacements and, which is of particular importance, the relative changes of vector lengths between the Ksiaz GPS Station and other referential GPS stations.
At the same time, the superior perfection of motion in creatures is evident in that they best imitate the creator not by resting but by exercising their proper motions.

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