The large propodium
of late pediveligers was very flexible and extensible.
At 21[degrees]C, all larvae died within 84 h after fertilization at Stage 30 (cilia growth on the propodium
of the veliger).
Iodide (PI) and Acridine Orange (AO) were obtained from Sigma (USA).
The cells were stained by adding 1 mL of propidium iodide buffer containing 0.2mg/mL of RNase A, 0.1% Triton X-100, and 20 [micro]g/mL of propodium
iodide (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), and the cell suspension was incubated at room temperature for 15 min.
The combined presence of eyespots and a propodium
is a reliable indicator of metamorphic competence in opisthobranchs (Bonar 1978), and most planktotrophic nudibranchs hatch without eyespots (Bonar 1978; Hadfield and Switzer-Dunlap 1984; Goddard 2004).
Brownish yellow with black antennae, head, deflexed portions of mesonotum lateral to scutellum, mesoscutellum, metanotum, metascutellum, mesosternum, anterior margin of propodium
, terminal 1/4 of ovipositor sheath, apices of all tibiae and tarsi.
At this stage, cilia developed on the foot sole (stage 21) followed by formation of propodium
The anti proliferative activity of isolated polysaccharide was examined by MTT assay and evaluation of cell death was done through morphological cell changes; Propodium
Iodide staining, fluorescence microscopy and caspase-3, -9 enzymatic measurements.
Other morphological signs of competence include the appearance of eyespots and the development of a propodium
on the enlarged metapodium (Perron and Turner, 1977; Chia and Koss, 1978; Harrigan and Alkon, 1978; Todd, 1981).
The appearance of larval structures, such as the velum, statocyst, left and right digestive diverticula, eyespots, and propodium
Females brood their embryos between the neck and the propodium
until they hatch (Fig.
Seminal studies by Carriker and Van Zandt (1972a, 1972b) revealed that drilling by muricid gastropods through the shell of prey involves the close interplay of the proboscis, propodium
, and the accessory boring organ (ABO).