arctostaphylos fruits from Turkey, including gallic, protocatechuic
, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, sinapic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic, caffeic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids.
It is highly composed of alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, and polysaccharides; however, compounds like flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and their free phenolic acids, including p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic
acids), amides, and alkaloids have also been isolated (Spelman & Wetschler, 2009; Manayi et al., 2015).
10,172,772 B2 (Najla Guthrie, Robert Allen Guthrie); KGK Science, Inc., London, CA, has patented a method for lightening skin that entails topically applying to the skin a composition that consists of a canola extract comprising protocatechuic
acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, P-coumaric acid, and sinapic acid (wherein the canola extract comprises at least 30% sinapic acid) and a cosmetically acceptable carrier.
nutans contains important constituents such as phenolics, flavonoids, stigmasterol, [beta]-sitosterol, lupeol, betulin, chlorophyll derivatives, protocatechuic
acid, C-glycosyl flavones, vitexin, isovitexin, shaftoside, isomollupentin, 7-O-[beta]-glucopyranoside, orientin, isoorientin, cerebrosides, steroids, triterpenoids, glycerides, monoacylmonogalactosylglycerol, and sulfur-containing glucosides.
Analysis of phenolic compounds: In the research, the gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acid, phloridzin, protocatechuic
, vanillic acid, rutin and quercetin phenolic compounds were determined.
High-performance liquid chromatography showed that the phenolic compounds contained gallic acid, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic
acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid.
Compared with BP group, 23 metabolites were significantly altered in SD group: creatinine, azelaic acid, protocatechuic
acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid were upregulated, yet lactate, glycolic acid, alanine, nicotinic acid, phenylacetic acid, glycine, 4-deoxyerythronic acid, pipecolic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid, nicotinamide, uracil, threonic acid, suberic acid, putrescine, citric acid, hippurate, lysine, urate, and ascorbic acid were downregulated in SD group as shown in the heat map (Figure 5(a)).
Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, gallic acid, protocatechuic
acid, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, pyrogallol, caffeic acid, mangiferin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, epicatechin gallate (ECG), catechin gallate (CG), ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, homogentisic acid, tannic acid, vanillic acid, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), sodium nitrite, LPS, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and 2,2,-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
The reference compounds protocatechuic
aldehyde, hydroxysafflor yellow A, tanshinone IIA, lithospermic acid, and salvianolic acid A ([greater than or equal to]98%, determined by HPLC) were obtained from PUSH Bio-Technology Co., Ltd.
oxyphylla show antioxidative stress properties, such as protocatechuic
acid [19, 20].
The salicylic acid, formic acid, ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid), fluorescein sodium, flavonoids (mangiferin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, naringin, naringenin, linarin, luteolin, acacetin, and apigenin), and phenolic acids (shikimic, protocatechuic
, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, quinic, chlorogenic, caffeic, coumaric, synaptic, ferulic, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) were all obtained from Sigma Aldrich (St.