Differential hypomethylation of the c-myc protooncogene
in bladder cancers at different stages and grades.
Antisense mediated inhibition of Bcl-2 protooncogene
expression and leukemic cell growth and survival: comparisons of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligodeoxy-nucleotides.
" spurs normal cell growth and differentiation in a wide range of tissues.
MET, or hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is a tyrosine kinase and protooncogene
associated with NSCLC.
Other stemness-linked markers lysine acetyltransferase 6A (MYST3), RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), and SKI-like protooncogene
(SKIL) were differentially modulated between hPDLSCs and MS-hPDLSCs.
Research has demonstrated that PELP1 is a protooncogene
in hormone-responsive cancers, such as breast [19,20], ovarian , endometrial [22,23], and prostate cancers .
Fleischmann et al., "Protooncogene
expression in porcine myocardium subjected to ischemia and reperfusion," Circulation Research, vol.
Essentially, miRNA deregulation in cancer is oncogenic (oncomiR) under two different conditions: (a) when overexpressed, miRNAs may block tumor suppressor gene translation or (b) when underexpressed, miRNAs may derepress protooncogene
mRNA translation (Figure 2).
For a cell to acquire tumor phenotype, loss of TSG function is required, which may or may not be accompanied by over expression of protooncogene
and there is also accumulation of additional mutations in other genes (5,6).
Early alterations in ras protooncogene
mRNA expression in testosterone and estradiol-17 beta induced prostatic dysplasia of Noble rats.
As models, we chose 3 translocations, IGH-BCL2, MYC-IGH, and BCR-ABL1, characteristic translocations in follicular lymphoma (FL), Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and CML, respectively (gene information: IGH: immunoglobulin heavy chain; BCL2: BCL2, apoptosis regulator; MYC, MYC protooncogene
, bHLH transcription factor).
(3) Patients with activating mutations of the KRAS protooncogene
have constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and are unresponsive to EGFR inhibition.