These plants contain benzophenanthridine and protopine
(QBA+PA), and these are known for their antimicrobial properties in vitro, as they inhibit the bacteria and fungi multiplication that cause gastrointestinal discomfort , in addition to have an anti-inflammatory function to assure a better animal health [4-8].
The presence of isoquinoline alkaloids, the most important of which is protopine
, is mainly associated with the biological activity of Fumaria spp.
These results agree with previous phytochemical investigations that revealed the presence of several alkaloids , including berberine, jatrorrhizine, protopine
, allocryptopine, and sanguinarine.
The genus Berberis is known to possess isoquinoline, bisbenzylisoquinoline, protoberberine, aphorphine, benzyl isoquinoline, and protopine
ochroleuca, and a great variety of alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, protopine
, sarguinarine, optisine, chelerythrine, atropine, dihydrosanguinarine, dihydro-chelerythrine, [alpha]-allacriptopine, heleritrine, queilantifoline, scouletrine, reticuline, and copsitine) were identified (Israilov et al.
Cui et al., "Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, albiflorin, ferulic acid, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine
, typhaneoside, senkyunolide I in Beagle dogs plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after Oral Administration of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction," Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol.
Sanguinarine, berberine, and protopine
are quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids, while chelidonine is a tertiary alkaloid.
Except rotundium, there are four other alkaloids, d-corydaline, d-glaucine, protopine
, and l-tetrahydrocolumbamine, isolated from the methanol extract of Chinese Corydalis tuber (CMe), which showed inhibitory action on blood platelet aggregation .
parviflora components such as 23a-homostigmast-5-en-3b-ol (C30H52O) and cis- and trans-protopinium or protopine
(C20H19N+O5) were previously isolated through bioactivity-guided isolation (Naz et al.
The plant contains, as major constituents, isoquinoline alkaloids (such as sanguinarine, chelidonine, chelerythrine, berberine, protopine
and coptisine), flavonoids, and phenolic acids.
Results: The chemical analysis of AFC revealed the presence of 23 alkaloids, being the most abundants stylopine, protopine
Singh et al., "Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and potential energy distribution of protopine
using ab initio and density functional theory," Journal of Structural Chemistry, vol.