Gr|ningius (1669-1747) does not figure among the well known thinkers of the 17th century, indeed is known mainly for writing a number of works on numismatics, say Maxwell-Stuart, Murdock and M'ller, but he also wrote the thesis Navigatio libera (Unimpeded Sailing), which itself is known mainly through Samuel Pufendorf
's critical account of it.
Although in his examination of the 1717 work Razsuzhdenie kakie zakonnye prichiny ego tsarskoe Velichestvo Petr Pervyi Tsar ' i Povelitel ' vserossiskii Hamburg describes how the two authors, Petr Shafirov and Peter the Great, referred to the idea of "civilized peoples," he fails to inform the reader that the notion and concept of "civilization" was something new in Russian political thinking or to set them in the context of the adoption of the first universally conceived framework of international law as introduced by Samuel Pufendorf
and Hugo Grotius.
As regards the history of socialism (chapters I & II), the little-known roots of the term itself belong to "Catholic theologians" of the 18 th century, who "referred to a tendency in the works of Grotius and Pufendorf
" to assume that "the legal order of society should be founded on the human need for 'sociality' rather than divine revelation." (6) Better known is the use of this term by 19th-century Owenites "in England and the Fourierists in France", who were horrified by "the misery of the working masses" under the prevailing "economic sphere", which had clearly betrayed the melioristic aspirations of "the French Revolution" (7-9).
The author defends an interpretation of Grotius's account of property and the right of necessity against some recent sympathetic readers, and shows how he escapes a seemingly telling criticism from Pufendorf
The indivisibility of sovereignty was affirmed in the scholarship of Johannes Althusius, (57) Hugo Grotius, (58) Thomas Hobbes, (59) Ludolph Hugo (60) and Samuel von Pufendorf
. (61) It underlay Pufendorf
's claim that the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire was an "irregular," unsustainable system of government because it purported to divide sovereignty between the emperor and the German princes.
Esse juizo encontra terreno fertil, tambem, na aversao declarada de Vico por aquela especie de teorico do direito que "[...] professa que seu sistema permanece preciso mesmo sem a cognicao de Deus" (Vico, 1992, [section] 395), a exemplo de Grocio ou, ainda, Pufendorf
, que "[...] poe o homem lancado nesse mundo sem nenhuma ajuda e cuidado de Deus" (Vico, 1992, [section] 397).
Wolff did not therefore follow the voluntarist tradition of natural law, which was characteristic of Germany's two other famous natural jurists of the early Enlightenment--Samuel Pufendorf
and Christian Thomasius.
on natural equality, human dignity, and self-esteem.
En el desarrollo, Leocata no dejara de mencionar a otros pensadores--Hume, Kant, Pufendorf
, Rousseau y otros-, mostrando similitudes, contradicciones, reinterpretaciones, que jalonaron el camino recorrido desde que, con <<Suarez se pierde, en cierto modo, lo que es posible denominar como caracter formativo de la razon, o mejor dicho de la recta razon (...)>> (268), hasta llegar a <<la razon que calcula peligros y beneficios y que quiere superar el estado de hostilidad primitiva o bien como una consecuencia de la idea de propiedad y la necesidad de sociabilidad (...)>> (289), y que no tiene el menor atisbo de un bien perfectivo o de <<una ley natural moral o juridica razonablemente estable en el sentido de la primera tradicion>> (291).